Dynamics Of Social, Political, And Economic Issues Essays Example
The social, political and the legal environment affect the operations in their respective contexts. As such, many factors influence the operations in these environments. Some of the issues in these environments include workplace diversity, protests against globalization, and sustainability in the business world. The articles, “The Structure of ‘Revealed’ Preference: Race, Community and Female Labour Supply in the London Clothing Industry” by Naila Kabeer, “The Battle of Seattle” by Levi and Olson, and “The Dynamics of Standing Still” by Donald N. Sull, illustrate these issues respectively. Industries are a crucial component of any global economy. Many issues relate to industries that are of keen interests. Whether labour unrests, diversity in the workplace or management problems, they all affect the productivity of any sector in the economy. Many researchers have conducted studies on issues related to industries. While some researchers have conclusively led to common deductions, others seem to be contradictory on matters related to global industries. As such, the manner by which various researchers and authors have approached various subjects on industries will form the focus of the review.
According to Naila Kabeer (1994, P.307), work diversity in London is an issue of interest. Specifically, the author addresses the growing concentration of women employees of Bangladesh origin in London’s homeworking sector of the clothing industry (Naila 309). The pattern greatly contrasts with the huge number of male employees of Bangladeshi origin who have flooded the garment industry, particularly the ones who are mostly found in the sweatshops and factories (Naila 310). The article utilizes the explanations of the Bangladeshi homeworkers as per their accounts regarding their concentration in such sectors of the economy. Consequently, the author strives to explore the diverse theoretical elucidations of the economy, culture, constraint, and female labour supply behaviour. Sull (434) elaborates on the capability of major players in the tire industry to stay competitive in the face of transforming dynamics. While other companies may opt to develop novel ways of reacting to competition and innovation, Firestone Tire & Rubber stuck to its conventional ways (Sull 436).
Sull (1999, P.434) brings about a new dynamic in the world of industries, particularly in relation to management and leadership. Historians in the business world have illumined the manner in which first movers in numerous arising sectors achieve lasting leadership positions (Sull 433). By contrast, they have accorded minimal attention to the procedure followed by industry leaders to renounce their dominance. Sull (436) reviews the reasons behind the failure of Firestone Tire & Rubber. The company’s management failed to secure the dominance of the industry. As such, Firestone Tire & Rubber failed in the responses towards the foreign competition as well as new technology. In his argument, the author ascertains that Firestone’s response was mismatched rather than deficient. As such, they reacted by accelerating the activities, which played a significant part of their previous success. The response of Firestone's was constrained by the existing values and strategic frames of managers. The company was also constrained by the procedures and established relationships with employees and customers. The company maintained their status as an established force by maintaining its processes rather than adopting new ones (Sull 437).
Levi and Olson (2010, P. 309) present another dynamic in industries, which pertains to workers. The article addresses two noteworthy themes, which seems to affect the dynamics of work in various industries. The first theme is the role of employees, particularly waterfront employees, in their strife for worldwide economic justice. The other issue is the transformative strategies of militancy in the labour world. The authors use Seattle emblematically to portray the processes that occur in the advanced industrial economies of the world. Through the recount of the historical background of labour actions, the two authors strive to show how large-scale actions of labour have had major influences in the global economy. The article focuses on numerous instances that involved the actions of maritime workers. Labour unrests, in most cases, arise from the preferential treatment of some workers while mistreating the others. The reaction of the workers in every industry is crucial in shaping up the operations of these industries. Naila Kabeer seems to echo the point in his article, with specific reference to Bangladesh workers in London (Naila 308).
Levi and Olson (2010, P. 310) present their arguments in the consideration of the impact of globalization, particularly on the popular protest. The debate regards the effect of globalization in diminishing power of nations or the significance of national political structures. The article illustrates the manner by which international institutions influence the abilities of states, elites and challenges in influencing worldwide political processes. Many campaigns at the international level are tailored to transform international policy through the shaping up of the decisions made by individual nations. Thus, they may urge members to target their domestic policy procedures. The significant element of prosperity at Seattle was the conflict between European states and the United States over issues pertaining to safety and agricultural issues between poor and rich nations over the rules regarding trade liberalization (Levi & Olson 315). States may have complete control over international institutions. Nonetheless, they have no capacity to control every aspect of daily operations of international institutions. Furthermore, they do not collaborate in the attempt to challenge the challengers. Most nations may act as allies to various movements on particular matters. Alternatively, they may witness the service of their strategic interests by various movements, which oppose government policies (Levi & Olson 311).
Kabeer’s study shows that the ‘preferences’ depicted by the labour market conduct of Bangladeshi women may not be attributed entirely to them (Kabeer 316). As such, it should be perceived in terms negotiating and bargaining with more influential family members. Moreover, the intra-household process of decision-making is entrenched within a wider institutional environment. Such an environment dictates the degree of access enjoyed by varied groups to socially valued resources. The people of Bangladesh acknowledge the operation of exclusion that are racially based as a crucial factor in the wider environment. Subsequently, networks and community solidarity represent significant material sources and symbols for members. However, the distribution of the resources follows definite gender-specific ways. These ways clearly stipulate the implications of the place of women in the community. Therefore, the author argues that any endeavour to explain the concentration of Bangladeshi women in homework must go beyond an emphasis on cultural norms or individual circumstances. As such, it should explore the interaction of gender relations, community identity, and racism towards influencing the labour market options for women (Naila 321).
Sull’s study of the response of Firestone Tire & Rubber to new technology and foreign competition yields fascinating insights into the manner by which industry leaders react to various transformations within their competitive environments (Sull 435). In the face of evident aggressive new players or technical innovations, leaders often react through inertia. However, Firestone evidently failed to react to the radicals by taking no action. The firm rapidly created a fastened bias tire to correspond to the offering of Goodyear (Sull 437). It also invested hugely in circular production capacity the moment automobile producers in Detroit changed to radials. The active inertia of Firestone creates arguments as to the forces that lock recognized competitors into opting for historical responses. The author acknowledges the value, relationships, processes and established strategic structures as the significant structural elements, which channelled the response of Firestone to radial tires into threadbare grooves. The managers at Firestone depended on Akron for competition while it depended on Detroit to supply customers for future growth. However, these strategic structures blinded them to the hard realities that come with the radical age. The processes at Firestone for creating new products as well as allocating capital were well suitable for increasing product extensions in an ever-growing market.
Levi and Olson (2000, P. 321) show that global trade liberalization protests entail widespread transnational mobilizing frameworks. Such structures are likely to develop further because of the impact of Seattle mobilization on the formation of collective identity. It also shows the transformation of the strategic repertoires, which indicate improved endeavours to target players than the nation states. Nations are usually the eventual target for changes in policy (Levi & Olson 322). On the other hand, challengers encounter a more multifaceted system of “multi-level governance”. It is whereby the interactions among nations become significant obstacles or resources to the endeavours of the challenges to influence a given state. The intergovernmental institutions offer targets for mobilizing people in manifold national settings, which surround common policy goals.
The three articles are clear illustrations of the concepts related to social, political, and economic systems. The article illustrates the role of Bangladeshi women origin in London’s homeworking sector of the clothing industry. The author presents varied arguments on the reason for such occurrences. As such, the reasons are related to the social elements of these respective societies. However, the author suggests that the reasons surpass only social and cultural roles. As such, it must explore the interaction of gender relations, community identity, and racism towards influencing the labour market options for women. The article on Firestone Tire & Rubber seems to relate to the economic context as mentioned earlier. It shows the manner and the processes applied by an established firm to survive the competition and the emergence of new technology. Lastly, “The Battle of Seattle” shows the interactions between social protests and globalization.
Kabeer, Naila. "The Structure of ‘revealed‘ Preference: Race, Community and Female Labour Supply in the London Clothing Industry." Development and Change. 25.2 (1994): 307-331. Print.
Levi, Margaret, and David Olson. "The Battles in Seattle." Politics & Society. 28.3 (2000): 309-329. Print.
Donald N. Sull. The Business History Review,Vol. 73, No. 3 (Autumn, 1999), pp. 430-464.Print.