Essay On Air Quality Standard
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Part 2. Choosing national air quality priorities
Particle pollution, or “particular matter” should be designated as a national regulatory priority for the United States. The particle pollution originates from combustion processes (fossil fuels, wood, forest fires, motor vehicles, agricultural burning), industrial processes, crushing operations, and natural processes (Nemmar, Holme, Rosas, Schwarze & Alfaro-Moreno, 2013). The number of pollution sources is great, and the emission from many cannot be either prevented or reduced, therefore it should be treated with special attention and designated as a national regulatory priority.
Particles can be easily inhaled and target anatomical sites. Nemmar et al. (2013) described the influence of particle pollution depending on their size. All types of particles affect lower airways, particles sized 2.5 μm induce lungs. Ultra-fine particles and nanoparticles (size less than 0.1 μm) are translocated to distant organs by the bloodstream.
The standard for particle pollution was last reviewed in 2012. The review concern was about specification of a primary quality standard for fine particles (size 2.5 μm) to level 12 μg/m3. In a previous standard of 2006, the level was 15 μg/m3.
Environmental Protection Agency (2014) proposed a global implication as guidelines for regulation and reduction of greenhouse gases emission. The regulations are expected to reduce the emission of other precursor pollutants, including particles. This is indicated as “health co-benefits”.
Part 3. Identify which pollutants significantly contribute to these issues
Environmental Protection Agency (2014). Regulatory impact analysis for the carbon pollution emission guidelines supplemental proposal. Retrieved from http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-10/documents/20141028ria-supplemental-proposal_1.pdf.
Nemmar, A., Holme, J. A., Rosas, I., Schwarze, P. E., & Alfaro-Moreno, E. (2013). Recent advances in particulate matter and nanoparticle toxicology: a review of the in vivo and in vitro studies, BioMed Research International, 2013, 279371, 1-22.
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