Example Of Argumentative Essay On Water Desalination In The Middle East
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Middle East continues to face water crisis due to its global location. The average rainfall in the Middle East is between 20 cm to 40 cm per year which very low considering that the average rainfall is 72cm (Nîmes 8). Thus this region is dry and hence is faced with drought almost through out the year. However, the areas are faced with rapid population growth as more cities and manufacturing plants continue to be built. This increase in population growth has come with demand for more provision of sanitary water. Pressure for more clean water coupled with poor water management practices, has seen water resources in the Middle East become scarce and one of the sure solutions left is construction of more water desalination plants. Some of these countries that face water problems are the United Arab Emirates, Iraq, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Despite having the largest oil reserves in the global, the Middle East environment and climate makes living a nightmare as desertification is increasing at alarming rate (Barton 1). Since the conventional water resources are extremely scarce in many of these Arabian Gulf countries, water in this region is in crisis because of lack of access to the fresh water. Therefore, to bring a lasting solution to this crisis, I propose that more water desalination should be built instead of encouraging alternative form of water such as conservation of fresh water emanating from rivers (Nîmes 14).
Desalination is a process of water purification where the saline in water is removed to make the water fresh for human consumption. This process has been in use for many years since Kuwait adopted it in 1957 where it used desalination to generate electricity (World Nuclear Association 3). Although this process is expensive to maintain it is the most crucial method of solving water problems in the Gulf States where ground water is extremely limited. This desalinated water is used in industrial and municipal supply to the population. Many countries in the Middle East have resulted to using desalination as the means to satisfy their water needs. Saudi Arabia currently is the leading country having 20% of the desalinated water in the world (Grego, Andrea and Stefano 74). Since Saudi Arabia is located in a very dry region, the need for fresh water there is imminent just like in any other Arabian Gulf country. It is for this reason that the local governments in these regions have set their main priorities as desalination of salty water from Gulf Sea and Arabian Sea.
Water is said to be life and every living thing need it for survival. Many countries without enough water have been forced by pressure from industrialization and rising population to look for all possible means of increasing their water output. Though still some countries have access to ground water and other water resources, majority of Middle East countries experiences water shortage. Further, the region is faced with water related conflicts such as the Israel and Lebanon water dispute which was conflict from usage of river Jordan (Frost and Sullivan 2). If the water scarcity is address properly globally it can lead numerous conflicts as almost every continent is faced by water pollution. Moreover, history has proved that water is one of the main political problems in the world especially where countries share a common ocean or river. A case in point is that of river Euphrates which flows through Turkey and Syria and other countries but this river has almost dried up before entering Syria as the other countries have overused the water (Nîmes 16). Though there has been myth associated with desalination such as that the desalting causes soil pollution, machine breakdown and the water generated is not pure, the process has not been stopped (Kamal 46).
In conclusion, water desalination is crucial in Middle East. Due to short or no rains in Arabian Gulf countries, many of the countries there have started using desalination methods to get enough water for their citizens and hydroelectric power generation. Many cost efficient machines for desalination have been invented and it is now possible to purify salty sea water at ease without huge cost.
Barton, Alexandra.Water In Crisis - Middle East. Crisis Spotlight, 2014.
Grego, Simone, Andrea Micangeli, and Stefano Esposto. "Water Purification in the Middle East Crisis: A Survey on WTP and CU in Basrah (Iraq) Area within a Research and Development Program."Desalination 165, (2004): 73-9. Print.
Kamal, Ismat. Myth and Reality of the Hybrid Desalination Process. 230 Vol. Elsevier B.V, 2008. Print.
Nîmes, N. Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination in the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia." Water Desalination. Consortium of Consultants, 2014. Web.
Frost, Finds and Sullivan. Seawater Desalination Remains Critical to Meet Water Requirements Across the Middle East and North Africa. News RX LLC, 2009. Print.
World Nuclear Association. Nuclear Desalination,2013.
Valladares Linares, R. et al. NOM and TEP fouling of a forward osmosis (FO) membrane: Foulant identification and cleaning. Journal of Membrane Science 421–422: 217-224 (2012).
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