Example Of Essay On Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary tract infections are uncomfortable, very common, particularly widespread affecting millions of people every year. The urinary tract produces, stores and expels urine, and infections occur when the bacteria enter the tract and trigger problems. Urinary tract infections are more common in women than men as the anatomy of women makes them prone to urinary tract infections. In women, the physical opening of the urinary tract system is very close to the openings of the digestive and reproductive systems, the two places where bacteria enter and exit the body. Lower urinary tract infection, also called cystisis causes lesser complications when compared to the upper tract infection, known as pyelonephritis . The vast majority of both upper and lower urinary tract infections are monomicrobial caused by Escherichia coli.
The major causes of urinary tract infections are structural and functional abnormalities, such as the disruption of normal flow of urine leading to urinary stasis, foreign bodies, such as calculi and urinary catheters, metabolic abnormalities, such as diabetes and pregnancy, and impaired immunity . Other causes are the increased use of immunosuppressive drugs and bone marrow transplantation. At least 50 percent of the women experience urinary tract infections at least once in their lifetime, with approximately 5 percent experiencing frequent infections when compared to men. The infections are twice as common in women as in men. The significant risk factors of the disease in women are sexual activity poor hygiene.
Typical symptoms of cystisis include dysuria, urinary frequency, urgency and occasionally hematuria or lower abdominal pain. The presence of fever or plank pain raises the concern for complicated urinary tract infection. The symptoms of pyelonephritis include fever, nausea, vomiting and vertebral angle tenderness in addition to the symptoms of cystisis . Pyelonephritis leads to abscess formation and urosepsis. The pathogenesis of upper and lower urinary tract infections depends on the ability of microorganisms to establish colonization in the periurethral area and subsequently ascend into the urinary tract, thereby causing infection. Laboratory tests, such as dipstick testing, microscopic analysis of urine sediment and urine culture. An ultrasound scan helps to check any obstruction in the urinary tract.
A 2-week use of antibiotics is a common medication for most of the urinary tract infections. The list of antibiotics includes cephalexin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, amoxicillin and many others. The long term use of prophylactic antimicrobial therapy helps to limit the recurrence of infections. Long term use of antimicrobial agents decreases the risk of infections. Potassium and sodium citrate salts are a complementary therapy, which helps in alkalinizing the urine . It is important that the patients drink liberal amounts of water every day to flush out the bacteria. In the case of pyelonephritis, it is important to check the functions of the kidneys. In severe cases, pyelonephritis leads to kidney dysfunction and requires renal replacement or dialysis.
Recent infection with drug-resistant bacteria, hospitalization or residence in a long term care facility increase the risk of urinary tract infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria. Such infections require the medication of high-end antibiotics, to which the bacteria are not resistant . In postmenopausal women suffering from recurrent urinary tract infections, the best treatment is estrogen replacement therapy. Patient-initiated self-treatment with short-course regimes helps to treat the infections in an effective way. Cranberry juice is a preventive measure for several urinary tract infections as a natural compound present in the juice inhibits the binding of uropathogens to uroepithelial cells. Research is in the advance stages for the formulation of new strategies in the treatment of urinary tract infections.
Rane, A., & Dasgupta, R. (2013). Urinary Tract Infection: Clinical Perspectives on Urinary Tract Infection. Springer Science & Business Media.
Schlossberg, D. (2008). Clinical Infectious Disease. Cambridge University Press.
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