Example Of Research Paper On Renewable Energy AND The Environment Related With My Major (Sport Management)
Major: Sport Management
Audience: Football fans and Environmentalists
Electric cars as a good way to go for sports
Sport has become a dominant influence in many societies. No single aspect of culture receives the media attention accorded sport. Consequently, the process of recording, measuring and quantifying the advancement in the course of winning are usual features; and the velocity, size of engine, power of engine and efficiency of aerodynamic are extensively talked about by members, fans and observers or reporters.
The electric car uses electricity to give it the necessary torque for motion. This gives the car instant torque that is needed for smooth acceleration. For this reason, electric cars do not pollute the environment since there is no fuel combustion involved. This multi-million industry of dollar puts special demands on its workers and ever more needs unique training. Jobs within the industry of sports comprise countless skills relevant to the sport environment and particular to the extremely complicated and dissimilar types of locations it stands for. The management of sports is presently known as a legitimate field of study in many universities and other institutions of higher learning. Every motorsport variety, nevertheless, consists of two main commonalities. First of all, the members tend to value competitiveness so much--the competition victory and the procedure of attaining it. Consequently, the process of recording, quantifying plus measuring the improvement towards victory are usual features; and the pace, size of engine, power of the engine including aerodynamic effectiveness are extensively talked about by members, commentators along with fans. The next universal thing is that every strand of electric car contributes to reliance on substantial resources found on earth as a planet, and to the majority, a slight dependence on crude oil as the source of energy for forward motion. The electric vehicles of the plug in type of hybrid have gotten significant recent concentration for their possibility to lower petroleum use considerably and fast in the sector of transport. The study to assist in the plan of such kind of vehicles and foresee their performance of the actual-world and fuel dislocation have to consider the pattern of driving which these vehicles may normally come across. This paper extends further than reflecting on uniform cycle of certification by leveraging state-of-the-art tour inspection or survey techniques that use Global Positioning System (GPS) technology.
Introduction and background
Energy is necessary in the society to make certain the value of life and to strengthen all different elements within the economy. The technology of renewable energy presents the assurance of clean, plentiful energy collected from person’s renovating resources like wind, sun, plants and others. Almost every region in the U.S.A plus the world has resources which are renewable and which are of single type or different. Presently, renewable resources add up to approximately 10 percent of the total energy used in U.S.A; the largest part of this come from hydropower in addition to conventional sources of biomass (Bull 1216). Solar, geothermal , biomass, and wind technologies are cheaper in terms of cost as at present in several markets, and are making significant improvements to wider commercialization. Every technology of renewable energy is in a dissimilar phase of research, growth, and commercial process and every one of them has distinctions in the present and anticipated prospect costs, present base of industry, availability of resource, and possible effect on the gas emissions of the greenhouse. The technical position, applications, and costs of the main technologies of renewable energy and repercussions for enhanced acceptance for renewable energy will be evaluated. The main thing of interest concerning Tesla which is the niche comfort electric car creator - is the responsibility of promotion in the sale of electric cars that cost either 100,000 dollars or extra. There has been an attempt to modify the auto industry by several people over the previous forty years abut no success have been realized. The procedure of purchasing a car is basically similar as it was in the past generation. Furthermore, the procedure has remained disliked for a number of decades: the usual dealer for the car gets simply two or three stars on Yelp. It is good to talk about that Tesla Motors is doing partnership in marketing the sustainable products of energy from different companies together with the car. As an example, from different choices, it will be providing a reasonably sized and solar panel that is well priced from the SolarCity which is the company of a photovoltaic. The installation of this system can be done on the car roof in allocation that is out of the way, due to of its small size, or established as a carport that will produce approximately 50 miles of electricity every day.
In history, the selling of luxury cars have taken place and simply relied on the value of their engineering. The main comfort automobile companies tout “engineering based performance” as one characteristic that makes them unique and attractive. Tesla promotion centers on performance via technology even as touting the ease of the platform. The Tesla replica S pitches frames again the auto industry power as a flaw or weakness. In a brave marketing progress, Tesla centers of service are planned using white floors in order to strengthen that electric cars do not have oil and extra unclean fluids that seeps out on the floor (Elon 12).
The United States faces a transportation energy problem. The transportation sector depends almost entirely on a single fuel: petroleum. The prospect of petroleum provision and its consumption as the main fuel of transportation endangers both individual mobility and financial or economic steadiness. The United States currently imports nearly 60% of the petroleum that it consumes and dedicates more than 60% of its petroleum consumption to transportation. With the ever-climbing U.S. petroleum consumption despite steadily declining domestic production, the petroleum import percentage will keep growing. International pressures also continue to increase as the growing economies of China and India consume petroleum at rapidly increasing rates. Many experts now predict that world petroleum production will peak within the next 5 to 10 years, greatly straining the petroleum supply-and-demand balance in the international market. Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology presents an excellent way to reduce petroleum consumption through efficiency improvements. HEVs use energy storage systems (ESS) combined with electric motors to improve vehicle efficiency by making it possible to use smaller-sized engines and by recapturing energy normally lost during braking events. A typical HEV can reduce gasoline consumption by about 30% over a comparable conventional vehicle. This number could approach 45% with additional improvements in aerodynamics and engine technology. Since their introduction in the United States, HEV sales have grown at an average rate of more than 80% per year. However, after 5 years of availability, they still represent only 0.1% of the total U.S. vehicle fleet. There are 237 million vehicles on the road today and more than 16 million new vehicles are sold each year. Each new vehicle - the vast majority of which are not Hybrids - will likely be in use for more than 15 years.
With continued growth in the vehicle fleet and in average vehicle miles traveled, even aggressive introduction rates of efficient HEVs to the market will only slow the increase in petroleum demand. Reducing U.S. petroleum dependence below present levels requires vehicle innovations beyond current HEV technology. Plug-in HEV (PHEV) technology provides the potential to displace a significant portion of transportation petroleum consumption by using electricity for portions of trips. A PHEV is an HEV with the ability to plug in so as to recharge its ESS with electricity from the utility grid. With a fully charged ESS, the vehicle will be biased toward use of electricity rather than liquid fuels. A key benefit of plug-in hybrid technology is that the vehicle no longer depends on a single fuel source. The primary energy carrier would be electric energy produced from different combinations of home resources, counting coal, gas, and wind energy, hydroelectric, natural in addition to energy from solar. The fuels from chemicals are considered as the minor carriers of energy stored within the motor vehicle, that is, diesel, gasoline, ethanol and the like. Even though PHEVs have to still conquer technical problems connected to the cost and size of ESS and the life of ESS, the available technology, however, offers a comparatively an option of petroleum dislocation that is of near-term. The complete evaluation of fuel savings possibility needs assessment of PHEV fuel consumption in relation to that of conservative vehicles plus other superior technology vehicles, like HEVs. This can be implemented usually by means of dynamometer controlled framework testing over uniform cycles of certification. (Jeffrey 26).
The economic incentive for drivers to use electricity as fuel is the comparatively low cost of fuel. The electric equivalent of the “drive energy” in a gallon of gasoline delivering 25-30 miles in a typical midsized car is about 9-10 kWh, assuming a vehicle efficiency of 2.9 mile/kWh. The cost of this electricity using the U.S. average residential rate for 2005 (9.4 cents/kWh) is under $1, and could be even less when using off-peak power at preferential rates (Wann 12). This cost is directly comparable to the end-user cost of gasoline, which nationally averaged $2.60 for regular-unleaded in a 12-month period. Given these potential cost advantages, a study by the The Research Institute for electrical power found a considerable possible market for PHEVs, based on the cost of vehicle and the prospect petroleum cost (Shao 22). In addition, a number of researchers have found out that by including “vehicle-to-grid” potential, where by the vehicle can both discharge along with charging at the same time, the owners of PHEV might also get considerable revenue through the use of energy stored within the vehicles to offer services for electric system of high quality like the spinning reserve, regulation with capacity of peaking. The utilization of PHEVs would stand for a important possible move in the consumption of electricity together with the functioning of systems for electric power. The transport electrification sector may possibly raise capacity of generation, transmission and finally distribution needs, particularly in case the vehicles happen to be charged during high demand periods. Other issues include impact discharges together with harmonized emissions and at present free greenhouse emissions of gases. The utilities are concerned with the net costs connected with this possible fresh load, counting likely merits of using enhanced system utilization that is permitted by restricted process of PHEV charge (Paul 52).
Values of a sense of accomplishment and loyalty might stimulate motives of achievement and group affiliation for watching sports. That is, according to the means-end chain model (Gutman 106), people may choose engaging in spectator sports because such engagement would align with their values such as self-enhancement and sociability. However, a motive might be situational but might not be a real value to predict consuming spectator sports. The results provide useful information to spectator sport managers. In order to inspire experience for audience with a sense of accomplishment, it would be important to first enhance team identification or player identification. The audience would vicariously experience the sense of accomplishment through the good performance of the favorite team or player (Gau 110). Also, managers should pay attention to carefully communicate the value of integrity with players and employees. Not only integrity is the essence of the spectator sports, but also this effort would reduce the negative association between spectator ports and moral.
Bull, S. R. Renewable energy today and tomorrow. Proceedings of the IEEE. 2001. Print.
Energy Information Agency. Form EIA-861 Database Journal. 2008. Print.
Gau and James J. D. International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation and Tourism. Asia University. 2014. Print.
Kempton, W. and J. Tomic. Vehicle-to-grid power fundamentals: Calculating capacity and net revenue. Journal of Power Sources. 2005. Print.
Paul J. D’Arcy. Tesla Marketing Strategy. Tesla Model S. 2014. Print.
Rokeach, M. The nature of human values. New York: Free Press. 1973. Print.
Shao, Y. L. An exploratory examination of the impact of personal values on sport consumption preferences and behaviors: A cross-cultural study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University. 2002. Print
U.S. Department of Energy. Annual Energy Outlook September, Energy Information Administration, Washington. 2006. Print.
Wann, D. L. Preliminary validation of the Sport Fan Motivation Scale. The
Wann, D. L., Melnick, M. J., Russell, G. W., & Pease, D. G. Sport fans: The psychology and social impact of spectators. New York: Routledge. 2001. Print.
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