Type of paper: Report

Topic: Solar Energy, Energy, Electricity, Middle East, Qatar, Time Management, Innovation, Efficiency

Pages: 5

Words: 1375

Published: 2020/12/20

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Abstract

This report discusses and analyzes solar panels used to power outdoor lighting and makes a recommendation of the best type based on cost and efficiency. Research identified three different types of solar panels: monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, and building integrated photovoltaics. The report presents factors that can affect the performance of solar panels such as solar altitude, solar radiation (irradiance), azimuth, and the condition of the solar panels. Based on research, Katsuno and Lotfithe elaborates on how to make a complete solar system and lists five parts that must be installed: solar panel, battery, charger controller, battery, convertor and a load. The final recommendation of the report is that using monocrystalline silicon panels is the best option. Although it is more expensive, the efficiency is very high.

Introduction

Electrical energy is essential and very important for life in present days. The state of Qatar uses gas as the main energy source. However, the gas production needs many resources and high efforts. Gas is one of the non-renewable energy resources, thus it will be exhausted sooner or later, and to present that from happening, we need to think about finding alternate and renewable energy resources such as the Sun energy. Solar panels work to collect the sun light that has plenty of protons. The protons convert to electrons, which are a direct current (DC).
The weather in Qatar is mostly sunny, which means that Sun energy can be used to generate electricity. There are many advantages to using solar panels and the main one is that solar panels are environmentally friendly. One of the other benefits of using solar energy is that the sun light is totally free of cost and easy to control. It also does not cause any kind of pollution to the environment.
Qatar is aiming to start using renewable energy sources for environmental and economic reasons of reducing greenhouse gas releases. Qatar National Development Strategy (QNDS) 2011~2016 document states that renewable energy presents opportunities for Qatar to enhance its future energy mix, conserve gas, and reduce carbon emissions, once technologies become cost efficient. The greatest potential lies in solar energy, but other technologies may play a part depending on still-evolving technological and economic parameters. The Ministry of Energy and Industry will create a committee to examine the potential of renewable energy resources in Qatar (Qatar General Secretariat for Development Planning, 2011).
Residential use in Qatar occupies the third place in electricity consumption, consuming up to 24% of the energy produced from gas (QNDS, 2016). Figure 4 shows the amount of energy consumed by residential homes in Qatar. According to this data, Qatar homes currently take the third place in consuming electricity. This report will discuss solar panels and how they can be used to convert the Sun’s energy into electricity for outdoor residential lighting. The recommendations will be based on cost and efficiency.

Background

In 1839, a French physicist, Antoine Cesar Becquerel, was credited first with solar panel research (Wolfe, 2013). Since that time, an evolution of solar panels started and continues to this date. In the beginning, people were trying to get better efficiency and consistent electricity using solar panels .Most of the countries around the world started to use the Sun’s energy. In Europe, environmentalists started to make houses that worked through the use of Sun energy. Homeowners started to use solar panels to produce electricity for self-sufficiency. Solar panels are devices that transform the Sun’s energy into electricity using either silicone or photovoltaic cells. There are four types of solar panels, monocrystalline silicon (single silicon), polycrystalline silicon (multi-silicon), building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) and solar thermal panels. Each of these will be discussed for their usefulness in this recommendation report. However, the solar thermal panels is not discussed in this report because it is only used for heat and it does not produce electricity.

Discussion

This section will discuss the types of solar panels used for outdoor residential lighting. The criteria, selected to make the comparison of the available equipment, will be discussed in the different types of solar panels used for residential lighting. Each type of solar panel will be discussed for their efficiency, which means how well they perform when they are exposed to sunlight. The efficiency rating will be categorized from high to low. The types are as follows:

Monocrystalline Silicon

This type of solar technology is expensive to manufacture. However, it has high efficiency that can convert high amounts of sun light to electricity. In addition, it lasts for a long time ((Katsuno, 2005).

Polycrystalline Silicon

Polycrystalline silicon type of solar technology is less expensive to manufacture and therefore costs less for the consumer to buy and use. It has a moderate efficiency and can convert 50 % of the sunlight to electricity, but it lasts for a less time (Lotfi, 2012).

Integrated Photovoltaics

Integrated photovoltaics type of solar technology is less expensive to manufacture than the polycrystalline silicon type. Therefore, practically most of the consumers use it. However, it has significantly lower efficiency than the other two types of panels discussed above because of the losses in panels. Moreover, it also lasts for a less time (ASHRAE Journal, 2008).
Thus, each type of solar panels has advantages and disadvantages in terms of cost, efficiency, and longevity. Table 1 shows a comparison chart using these three criteria for the three types of solar panels.

Research and Methodology

Research
In this section, the primary and secondary research that has been conducted and found to design and build a complete solar system are described. There are 5 important parts: Solar panel, Battery, Charge controller Convertor and Load.

Solar Panel: is a device that works to transform the Sun’s energy to electricity.

Battery: is a device that saves and provides electricity in case of an emergency.
Charge Controller: Is a device that only has one job which is to protect the battery from over charging.
Convertor: Is a device that works to change the alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC).
Load: Is a device where the electricity is used or consumed, in this case, to make light.
Figure 2 below shows the complete solar system circuits.

Analysis

In this section, an analysis of the conditions that affect the solar panels is presented. The solar panel systems depend on many factors to produce electricity with great efficiency. The factors are:
Solar Altitude: Basically, it is the angle of the Sun compared to the Earth horizon. As the angle changes, the electricity produced by the solar panels will change. Figure 3 below shows the calculation of the altitudes for the whole year in Qatar.
Solar Radiation (irradiance): Basically, is the heat that is produced from the Sun, which affects the function of the solar panels. With better radiation, best efficiency of the solar panels occurs. Figure 4 below shows the calculation of the radiation in Qatar.
Azimuth: Basically, it is the direction of the Sun .The direction of the Sun can affect the production of electricity from solar panels. Figure 5 below shows the Sun direction in Qatar.
The condition of the solar panels: With time, solar panels can get dust on them. The dust can affect the amount of electricity that solar panels produce.

Conclusion

It is important to use solar panels to help Qatar reach its 2016 strategic vision goals of renewable energy. The best solar panel type is Monocrystalline Silicon for efficiency. There are five important parts to building a complete solar energy panel system. The solar panel system depends on many factors to produce electricity with maximum efficiency.

Recommendations

Solar panel systems must be used to power the outdoor lights of a villa or a house in Qatar, because it reduces the amount of power that is consumed from the main electric grid. The best solar panel option is to use the single silicone, because it lasts for a long time.

References

Wolfe, P. (2013). Solar photovoltaic projects in the mainstream power market. Routledge.

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WePapers. (2020, December, 20) Example Of Solar Panels Report. Retrieved September 28, 2021, from https://www.wepapers.com/samples/example-of-solar-panels-report/
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"Example Of Solar Panels Report." WePapers, Dec 20, 2020. Accessed September 28, 2021. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/example-of-solar-panels-report/
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Example Of Solar Panels Report. Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/example-of-solar-panels-report/. Published Dec 20, 2020. Accessed September 28, 2021.
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