Example Of Sterilization Of Stethoscopes Research Paper
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Change Model Overview
Step 1: EBP Question
Under the study, the problem is the transmission of infectious pathogens through the use of stethoscopes in the inpatient setting. According to Mehta, et al., (2010), since Stethoscopes are one of the often used medical devices; they become more contaminated compared to other devices hence hosting vast pathogenic bacteria. The notion attached to the high number of cases recorded; there depicts need for implementing the proposed intervention where use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers to "simultaneously" cleanse the hands and stethoscope head is recommended. Such undertaking aim at averting stethoscope based transmission of pathogens causing disease outbreaks.
Step 2 Scope
Recruiting the interpersonal team is an initial step can be made in improving the assessed conditions in relation to inpatient settings through conducting a detailed assessment of the current working condition. The essence of the paper is to assess how “significantly to reduce the transmission of harmful pathogens especially in an inpatient setting through assessing what is the effect of using alcohol-based hand sanitizers. In order to "simultaneously" cleanse the hands and stethoscope head compared to merely cleansing the stethoscope with alcohol (wipes)”.
Problem under the depicted entity is based on the fact that Stethoscopes are potential vectors of pathogens or the bacterial infection as established for the last 30 years. The diagram and the earpieces of the doctors or the physicians on their personal stethoscopes, they are usually colonized by different types of pathogenic organisms likely to facilitate disease transmissions in the hospital settings.
Intervention of the problem indicated is altering changing the current approaches to handling stethoscopes in the hospital based settings (inpatient). Through strategic measures, the healthcare practitioners utilizing this tool should be required to alter the current practice of handling stethoscopes. It will help them to cleanse the stethoscope with alcohol (wipes) by using alcohol-based hand sanitizers to "simultaneously" wash the hands and stethoscope head.
Step 3, 4, 5
Comparison of the two proposed approaches is likely to yield different findings. The two recommended methods are examining the current use of alcohol wipes to the implementation of use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers to "simultaneously" cleanse the hands and stethoscope head. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer where the physicians clean their hands and the stethoscope head is likely to reflect positive outcomes.
Desired Outcomes based on the assumed primary cause of transmission of pathogens are to lower the number of transmissions by advocating the essence of using hand sanitizer cleaning the stethoscopes. The project leadership responsibility is to enhance and facilitate the implementation of the new project objectives towards the desired goals; the stakeholders are; patients, health care institution management, and the physicians.
Based on the stipulated analysis, the only solution to quality service delivery by the respective healthcare professionals is through improving and creating an environment advocating using alcohol-based hand sanitizers to “simultaneously” cleanses the hands and stethoscope head. The notion attached to the stipulated concept depicts the need for interventions by all the stakeholders in the healthcare field to effect vital changes. The measures based on these changes include; ensuring the working conditions avails enough alcohol-based sanitizers aligning with the set healthcare standards. Others are increasing awareness on the need to embrace the new plan due to the ability to lower the transmission cases, involving them in policy formulation and decision-making among other motivational projects (Patel, 2004). Such undertaking is vital towards reducing pathogenic bacteria transmission hence facilitating quality healthcare delivery.
Involving healthcare professions (stakeholders) in hospital management is a significant entity in designing for change. It reduces the use of alcohol wipes to clean stethoscopes while ensuring the interests of the patients and physicians are incorporated in decision-making and policy formulation. Increasing awareness of the need to practice the proposed plan is based on the fact that prior plan that entails separate procedure on cleaning stethoscope as routine not only reflects impracticable outcomes but also misguiding.
Based on the depicted health problem, it is evident stethoscope use not only pose a challenge in relation to addressing pathogenic bacteria spread. Thus, the essence, of using alcohol-based hand sanitizers to "simultaneously" cleanse the hands and stethoscope head other than using the alcohol wipes, is widely recommended. The proposed intervention is effective despite reports indicating that cleaning stethoscopes through the use of alcohol wipe was more effective compared to the alcohol-based hand sanitizers to "simultaneously" cleanse the hands and stethoscope head. It is based on the fact that the proposed plan is more practical and likely to be regularly performed. The notion that cleaning stethoscopes through the use of alcohol wipes entails a new cleaning experiment, the practice is not only impractical plus also unlikely to be performed regularly hence unreliable (Patel, 2004).
Step 6 and 7 Internal and External search for evidence
Increasing concern about bacterial infection and transmission in the hospital environment or nosocomial infection calls for significant interventions. The issue remains a significant hazard not only for the hospitalized patients but also the healthcare workers as part of the sources of this healthcare infection. Pathogens can be transmitted on the hands depicting the essence of healthcare practitioners to wash their hands prior and after seeing every patient. These transmissions of infections on some of the contaminated medical services are projected to facilitate outbreaks of different hospital-acquired infection. The infections link to various devices such as stethoscopes, latex gloves, blood pressure cuffs, pens, badges, white courts among others (Weber, 2009).
Based on the fact that Stethoscopes are commonly used towards assessing the health of patients, they have been regularly reported to be some of the major potential vectors for the nosocomial infection. The instrument facilitates contact with the infected skin; pathogens are likely to attach and establish on the diaphragms to other patients primarily due to lack of disinfecting objects. Thus, there is a need to assess how to reduce the transmission of harmful pathogens significantly, in an inpatient setting. It is crucial to know the effect of using alcohol-based hand sanitizers to "simultaneously" cleanse the hands and stethoscope head, compared to merely washing the stethoscope with alcohol (wipes).
Step 8 and 9: Evidence summary
Based on the analysis above, there is need to implement the stipulated changes through the designed framework. The implementation process should involve all the stakeholders in the healthcare or the hospital settings. The strategic approaches for the entire project are anticipated to take twelve months. The initial step is to be undertaken in one of the departments within the hospital with respective phases later distributed through the entire hospital hence ensuring full implementation of the depicted changes and the practices. The essence, of implementing these changes in different stages, is to offer a clear window for evaluation prior to full implementation.
Step 10: Recommendation
The use of stethoscopes is likely to have marginal impact on disease spread, the implementation and evaluation of the depicted changes, the essence, of analyzing the evaluated data and ensuring improvement to achieve the set objectives, is required. The interventions implemented should be approved by the management, and independent investigation team developed within the institution. The administrators should ensure a healthy working environment is created availed with the vital working equipments (Rutala, 2009). The reactions of the nurses should also be incorporated with these changes with some of the members of the investigating team comprising nurses as some of the members (Mehta et al. 2010).
Steps 11, 12, and 13: Action plan
Quality service delivery is primarily defined by good working condition in every organization. The activities attached include; assessing the issue (training interpersonal staffs, involving the stakeholders, assessing the outcomes, continuous assessments, and improvement. This is primarily evident in healthcare facilities based on the significance of the working environments meeting the set standards while having the required facilities. The notion attached to the stipulated analysis depicts the need to ensure that the working conditions in healthcare facility plus the facilities provided to the physicians. The evaluation plan embraces significant aspects such as; assessing the response or the outcomes, making intervention, and creating changes. The implementation should be based on three phases; the resources are; availing the healthcare practioners with the alcohol, purchasing stethoscopes, and setting up funds for supporting contingency plans.
Steps 16, 17, and 18: Implementation
The importance, of implementing stipulated interventions towards achieving the desired outcomes, is critical towards offering quality services to the patients hence vital to all stakeholders. This is also vital towards developing an effective well being of the doctors and the patients within the healthcare facilities based on the interaction and interventions reflected on the proper working conditions where disease transmission is primarily regulated. The need to ensure incorporation of employee needs in the policy formulation and decision-making forms a critical aspect towards achieving the set objectives within an organization. The depicted analysis embraces the PICOT approach where the Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, and Time are incorporated towards creating a competitive edge; which occurs on lowering the rate of pathogenic bacteria transmission by using alcohol-based hand sanitizers to "simultaneously" cleanse the hands and stethoscope head (Dearholt & Dang, 2012). The notion depicts the need to ensure continuous development or assessment based on the described problem towards improving healthcare services. The next steps are; continuous evaluation and assessment on the new plan. The outcomes on the implemented plan are lowering cases of pathogen transmission. Through reports supported with charts and figures the findings on are availed to the stakeholders on the improvement attached to the new invention.
Dearholt, S. L., & Dang, D. (2012).Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence Based Practice: Model and Guidelines (2nded.).Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International.
Guidelines for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities, 2008. Retrieved from:http://www.cdc.gov/hipac/Disinfection_Sterilization/2_approach.html
Mehta A.K, Halvosa J.S, Gould C.V. and Steinberg J.P. (2010). Efficacy of Alcohol‐Based Hand Rubs in the Disinfection of Stethoscopes. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:870-872.
Patel, S. (2004). The efficacy of alcohol-based hand disinfectants products. Nursing Times;100:23,32-34 Retrieved from:http//www.nursingtimes.net/Journals/2012/12/07/b/o/040608The-efficacy-of-alcohol-based-hand-disinfectant-products.pdf
Rutala, W., and Weber, D. (2009). “Cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization.” In: Carrico R., ed. APIC Text of Infection Control and Epidemiology. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology.
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