forms And Theories Of Government Research Paper Example
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According to Encyclopedia Britannica, communism is defined as “the political and economic doctrine that aims to replace private property and a profit-based economy with public ownership and communal control of at least the major means of production (e.g., mines, mills, and factories) and the natural resources of a society” (“Communism”). The only country in the world, which still remains Soviet-style communism is North Korea. Total communism has led to the international isolation of this repressive state and massive poverty. However the effectiveness of communism is considered as “zero” nowadays, Karl Marx’s ideas always can be interpreted in the right way for the country.
Marxism is the philosophical, economic and political doctrine, founded by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Traditionally, the following three points have great value in Marx's theory: 1) the doctrine of surplus value, 2) the materialist conception of history, 3) the doctrine of the dictatorship of the proletariat. A number of modern scholars have expressed the view that the philosophical basis of political programs of most of the communist parties of the Leninist type was dogmatic Marxism. It is believed that Marxism served as the theoretical basis for the totalitarian communist regimes of the XX century.
Merriam-Webster dictionary provides us with such definition of socialism – “a way of organizing a society in which major industries are owned and controlled by the government rather than by individual people and companies” (“Socialism”). Scientists also understand socialism as the social system, which embodies the principles of freedom, equality and social justice. "The socialist countries" - a term used in the Soviet Union to designate countries adhering to the ideology of Marxism-Leninism. Democratic world generally used the term "communist country" when speaking of the socialist countries.
Monarchy is a form of government in which the supreme state authority is partially or wholly owned by one person - the monarch and is usually inherited. Scientists outline such forms of monarchy: absolute and constitutional monarchies. Absolute monarchy - the monarchy, which assumes absolute power of the monarch; all state authorities are fully accountable to the monarch, and the will of the people can be expressed formally through a consultative body (now Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, Qatar). Constitutional monarchy – the monarchy in which the power of the monarch is limited by the constitution, unwritten rules or traditions. Constitutional monarchy exists in two forms: dual monarchy (currently exists in Morocco, Jordan, and Kuwait) and parliamentary monarchy (now the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Sweden).
Republic is a form of government in which all public authorities are either elected for a fixed term or formed by a nationwide representative institution, and citizens have the personal and political rights. The most important feature of the republic as a form of government is an elected head of the state, which excludes hereditary or non-elected method of transmitting power. Generally there are such types of the republic: parliamentary, presidential, and mixed republic. Most states of the world are officially republics.
Dictatorship is a form of realization of the government, in which the fullness of state power belongs to the one person (the dictator) or the ruling group. From the perspective of political science, a dictatorship - form of government in which the ruling group, regardless of the form of power, regardless of the form of the relationship to power, carries its rule directly, in legislative way. In recent times, dictatorships were widespread in Europe in the first part of the 20th century (Germany, Italy).
Totalitarianism is a political regime that has full (total) state control over all aspects of society and man. Manifestations of opposition in any form are ruthlessly suppressed or repressed by the state. Another important feature of totalitarianism is the creation of the illusion of a full approval of state policy by the people. Such regime was in Germany and Italy before and during the WWII, and is seen in North Korea.
Tyranny - a form of state power established by force and based on the one-man rule. Also tyranny is a form of political organization of a number of medieval city-states of northern and central Italy. The term "tyranny", especially since the Enlightenment, has acquired appellative value - a hard, despotic. Therefore, with respect to the form of government, he was replaced in the XIX century with more neutral term - dictatorship (which now also has a negative connotation).
According to Encyclopedia Britannica, anarchism is defined as the “cluster of doctrines and attitudes centered on the belief that government is both harmful and unnecessary” (“Anarchy”). It means a state of society or country, in which the laws are violated, the very concept of the rule of law is lost, and all power is rejected.
"Anarchism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 25 March 2015.<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/22753/anarchism>.
"Communism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 25 March 2015.<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/129104/communism>.
“Socialism”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online.
Web. 25 March 2015. <http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/socialism>
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