Free Biology: Evolution Paper Assignment Research Paper Example
The evolution of the peppered moth can be dates to around 200 years back which was a consequence of the industrial revolution. The evolution was based on the colour variation between the two species. The evolution was based on the concept with the increase in the number of dark-coloured moths as a result of industrial pollution. The rapid increase in these species led to the decrease in the original species in the environment. Thus, the phenomenon is known as industrial melanism. This was the first case of natural selection which was mentioned by Charles Darwin. The peppered moth is considered as one of the best examples of evolution. Between 1953 and 1956, Bernard Kettlewell investigated the mechanism behind the evolutionary changes involved in moth adaptation (colour change). The most striking observations was the presence of light-coloured moths in the clean environment (Dorset) and the presence of dark0coloured moths in the polluted regions of Birmingham.The allele for dark-bodied moths was found to be dominant in peppered moths while the allele for light-bodied moths was recessive. This simply relates to the phenotype of typical moths who have a visible characteristic observed in homozygous genotype. However, the same is not observed in the heterozygous type. The moths had differed with respect to trait (Variation), the number of new species increased (heritability), and all species had equal chances of survival (differential mortality). Thus, fulfilling the 3 criteria of natural selection. (Cook, L M, and I J Saccheri. 2013 and Saccheri, Ilik J. et al. 2008).
The mysterious phenomenon of the blue eyes was identified by a team of researchers from Copenhagen University who stated that the blue eyes was a result of a single mutation. All people who have blue eyes till date are genetically related to an individual who lived 10,000 years ago in the Black Sea region. The researchers confirmed that mutation of the gene called OCA2 which occurred nearly 8,000 to 10,000 year ago. The genetic mutation can be genetically traced to an ancestor in the region of the Black Sea. According to the researchers, they claimed that all humans had only brown eyes and that this was the most significant evolution in humans in the past 10,000 years. (Dr. Hans Eiberg.). According to Dr, Eiberg, there was a mutation in the OCA2 gene that resulted in the turning off of the brown eyes alleles eventually leading to blue eyes formation. Further investigations were carried out in order to confirm the statements of the researchers. Blue-eyed people from Turkey, Jordan, and Denmark were examined which reported that their maternal lineages were based to the ancestors of the Black Sea region. However, the brown pigment melanin still remains dominant. Another striking discovery in human evolution was observed after the Ice Age, when Europeans were found to have a rare mutation that was not observed in the entire human race. In the past 10,000 years there has been significant changes in hair and skin colour. (Donnelly, Michael P. et al. 2012 and NILSSON, DAN-E. 2013).
Since there is no end-purpose for the process of evolution, it cannot be a teleological process. If it was a teleological process, evolution would be able to the purpose or end-goal of the entire process of evolution. The most classic examples that prove evolution is not a teleological process is the presence of the survivable gene propagation and the stochastic mutation. However, there is no valid explanation to the evolutionary function and no term to define the end-goal which clearly indicates that evolution is not a teleological process. It can be concluded that if evolution was a teleological process, humans would have mischaracterised over the years in order to reach an end-stage or goal. (Ringen, Jon D. 1993). All the sources referred for this assignment were peer-reviewed and taken from international journals. These journals are part of a scientific database of original and peer-reviewed research. The papers were written by experts and scholars from this field who have more than 30 years of research experience. The sources cited in this paper was of great importance since they were entirely based on evolution, the process of evolution, and the view on the overall critics of evolutionary theories. All sources were directly associated with the research questions i.e. evolution in the past 200 years, human evolution that took place in the past 10,000 years, and the theory of evolution which is not a teleological process. Reviewing peer-review, reliable, and credible articles ensures that the research is based on a thorough study. Thus, this paper is based on credible and reliable sources.
Cook, L M, and I J Saccheri. “The Peppered Moth and Industrial Melanism: Evolution of a Natural Selection Case Study.” Heredity 110.3 (2013): 207–212. PMC. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.
Saccheri, Ilik J. et al. “Selection and Gene Flow on a Diminishing Cline of Melanic Peppered Moths.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105.42 (2008): 16212–16217. PMC. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.
Donnelly, Michael P. et al. “A Global View of the OCA2-HERC2 Region and Pigmentation.” Human Genetics 131.5 (2012): 683–696. PMC. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.
NILSSON, DAN-E. “Eye Evolution and Its Functional Basis.” Visual Neuroscience 30.1-2 (2013): 5–20. PMC. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.
Ringen, Jon D. “Adaptation, Teleology, and Selection by Consequences.” Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 60.1 (1993): 3–15. PMC. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.