Free Research Proposal About Effects Of Obesity On Insulin Resistance

Type of paper: Research Proposal

Topic: Obesity, Social Issues, Resistance, Diabetes, Family, Health, Food, Children

Pages: 10

Words: 2750

Published: 2021/02/11

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Obesity is a condition whereby an individual is seen as grossly fat or overweight. The challenge of obesity has been growing over the years and it has become a crisis in many countries. It has been established that there has been growing cases of children and teenagers becoming obese. This is especially true in the United States this is according to Samuel et al,(21). Insulin is a hormone that is produced in the pancreas and is secreted by the islet cells and it is essential for metabolizing carbohydrates and regulating the amount of glucose that is in the blood. When insulin is insufficient in the body, it causes diabetes mellitus. Insulin is a very necessary hormone for the healthy growth and development of every human being. Both young and old. There are cases where individuals have been reported to be insulin resistant. This is turn causes anumber of other complications in the body.
Since obesity has become a major challenge. It has been found necessary for research to be carried out in order to try and find a solution for it. Many theories have been made to try explaining the possible cause and solution for the problem, but there has not been one, that is truly easy and effective to curb this problem. (Glass et al, 16) It is confirmed that obesity causes constraints in the economy due to the effects it has on the lives of those affected. It creates challenges that affect many sectors of the economy in different ways, thus the need to find a solution to the problem. This is especially true in cases for example where an employee suffers from obesity. They find it hard to perform their duties well because they become very slow with their movements. They also tire faster than their healthier counterparts who can easily move around and run errands at ease. Many researchers agree that obesity, highly affects the supply of insulin in the body and thus many of those suffering from obesity, also suffer from diabetes mellitus, which is caused by abnormal supply of insulin in the body. This review is going to focus on obesity and its effects on insulin. Especially its resistance to insulin. The purpose of this research paper is to delve deeper into the causes of obesity, how to control and avoid obesity, who can be affected and possible solution to the problem of obesity. It is also going to delve depper into the relationship between obesity and insulin resistance.
It has been known for a long time that obesity plays a key role in insulin resistance for those suffering from type 2 diabetes. This has posed a number of questions that still remain unanswered considering the fact that there are other causes of type 2 diabetes (Rankinen et al, 60). This can also cause other ailments in the body, such as hypertension and others. The question that remains unanswered is how enlarged adipose tissue (obesity) causes insulin resistance.
Insulin resistance is mainly associated with type 2 diabetes, which is now considered an epidemic in the United States. Type 2 diabetes is a condition whereby the body cells are unable to use insulin to remove blood sugar out of the blood. This inability results in high sugar levels in the blood. It is not necessarily true to say that everyone with insulin resistance suffers from diabetes, though these individuals are at a greater risk of being diabetic (Han et al, 103). This is because 6% of the population in the United States are diagnosed with the disease. This rapid growth in the number of cases diagnosed with diabetes has been attributed to lifestyle changes that have been difficult to control. It has been ascertained that in order to control the insulin resistance, there has to be a rapid change in the lifestyles of individuals and the control of diabetes, which will require those with obesity to try to lose weight (Kahn, 136).
Even though not everyone suffering from diabetes is obese, the main cause of this type of diabetes is the lack of physical exercise. This is also the cause of 95% of diabetes cases in the United States. . Other causes of diabetes are, for example, when the pancreas does not produce any insulin or when it produces very little insulin. It also occurs when the body does not respond well to insulin. This is a condition called “insulin resistance”. Diabetes type2 has been long considered a disease of the elderly. Controlling it has also proved difficult due to its asymptomatic nature. The increase in the number of diabetes and insulin resistance cases has been recorded with the increase in obesity cases. This applies in both children and adolescents. It has also been reported that there has been a rise in diabetes in children who have parents with different ethnicities or races.
According to Rankinen et al (164), research has been able to produce many possible causes of obesity. These causes have been used as a way to try and solve the problem. The most common cause that has been given by the literary research available is the huge intake of food and less exercise. This is where one eats different types of food and in large numbers and rarely moves about. It is said to be dangerous when one consumes large amounts of fatty foods and sugars and does not take time to exercise in order to break them down. The effects of this is that much of these unbroken foods is stored in the body as fat and after a short while the build up of these foods causes one to have excess fats in the body. This can be avoided by, an individual making an effort to start eating healthy foods and snacks. The foods should be mainly centered around low calories, vegetables, fruits and grains. This does not mean one cannot eat fatty foods or sweets occasionally, the concentration should mainly be on the healthy foods. This can prove to be a very easy way to get away from the path of obesity.
A calorie, which is the measurement of the energy value of food, has also been found to be a possible cause for obesity. There is a difference in the energy value of food needed by an average man and woman in a day. A man is supposed to have 2500 calories in a day to be physically fit whereas a woman needs 2000 calories in a day. Different meals have different amounts of calories and one can easily exceed the average value needed for them to be physically healthy. It is therefore recommended that when one eats they are supposed to get some physical exercise in order to break the calories or they will end up being stored as fats(Kahn, 136).
Lack of physical activity has been proven to be a big cause of obesity. Many people have jobs that require sitting at their desks for long hours; these are mostly those who work in offices or from home. Most of the time when one is done from the office, they drive themselves either home or take a taxi from the office entrance to their front doors. They do not get time to walk around or even run. They also use the lifts at their offices and thus they do not find time to use the energy taken in their meals. It is a fact that many people use their spare time to watch television, browse the internet or just play computer games(Kahn, 136). These tasks do not require a lot of energy to undertake and thus the build up of body fat. It is recommended that one should do at least 150minutes of exercise in a week and this is easily achievable when one breaks it down to 30minutes of exercise in a day. Thus, they can easily achieve this target. There are fun ways of doing exercise such as, cycling or just walking. Many people assume that exercise involves running and hard routines that tire the muscles. Regular physical exercise can help such an individual have control of their body weight and thus avoid the excess fat.
It has been claimed that genetics cause obesity. Even though this may be true to some point considering rare conditions inherited, such as Prader-Willi syndrome, obesity is mainly caused by environmental factors such as bad eating habits that one adapts from childhood. One might inherit a large appetite from their parents, but this does not mean they cannot control their weight. Though it may be hard, it is not entirely impossible to achieve in the end. The problem is with the individuals who put it in their minds that they come from a family of fat people and that they cannot lose fat. This makes it har for their mentalities about obeity and overweight to be changed and thus even harder to help them keep fit and eat healthy(Kahn, 136). Such individuals believe that whatever happens, they can never lose weight even if they eat healthy and excercise regularly. Thay rarely make an effort to keep fit.
As it is said, one does not get obese overnight. It develops gradually due to the poor life choices of an individual. It is confirmed that one does not go to sleep physically fit and wake up the next day overweight. The choices one makes such as the heavy intake of alcohol are a contributing factor in the gradual weight gain of an individual because alcohol has a high amount of calories(Romeo et al, 362). Bad eating habits such as eating large amount of fast foods is very dangerous to one's health and this applies to the processed foods. Eating less of home cooked food also causes the gradual weight gain because some of the foods eaten at the restaurants contain large amounts of fat. Many people are impulse eaters and with this habit, they eat more than they necessarily need. This causes fat build up in the body, even if one eats healthy food. The intake of too much sugar in drinks also causes obesity(Romeo et al, 362). There are individuals who eat for their own comfort, e.g. when they are depressed or they have a low self-esteem. This leads one to eat excess food without their knowledge. It is easy for one to learn unhealthy eating habits from their parents or even siblings. This is because it is normal in the nature of humans to adapt to their surrounding environment. Getting over, this can be as easy as exercising self-control and identifying what triggers them to eat and what they eat at that particular moment when they are triggered. One should also keep a journal to help them deal with their feelings by writing it all down and going through it later when they are calm. This will help in ensuring that they can avoid the foods they crave for in their worst moments. Professional help should also be considered in situations that are considered extreme. This is because some cases can be hard for an individual to control and they might turn to be life threatening. It is necessary for a psychologist to be involed in such cases. It can also be easier for an individual get the assistance of a professional nutritionist and trainer in cases where an individual can not manage the amount of food they take.
Several medical conditions can easily lead one into obesity if not diagnosed and treated early. These conditions include, hypothyroidism where the thyroid glands produce lesser hormones that the necessary amount. Cushing’s syndrome is also a rare disease that can easily cause obesity because it causes the production of excess steroid hormones in the body. Certain medications have been confirmed to be a contributing factor in weight gain(Karpe et al, 58). Such medications include those used to treat diabetes and epilepsy. It is also confirmed that antidepressants can cause weight gain. Weight gain can also occur when one stops smoking.
Individuals can avoid being obese by regularly monitoring their weight and checking any anomalies. They should do this in a way that they ensure that they can also check their overall help and find solutions if they find any anomalies. It is also recommended for one to ensure that they are consistent with their routines be it exercising or healthy eating habits. This will ensure that the individual's success is achieved.
There has been an assumption that obesity and insulin resistance can only occur in adults. Research has proven this to be a mere myth. This is because there have been cases of children being diagnosed with obesity and even the problem of insulin resistance. Other children have been diagnosed with type2 diabetes yet they are physically fit. The children that are diagnosed with obesity can also suffer heart attacks, hypertension, and other related ailments. Therefore, it is very wrong to say that these problems can only affect the elderly(Karpe et al, 58).
When obesity starts in children, it often does not go through the hyperinsulinemic state. This makes it easy for obesity to mature in children compared to adults. It has also been confirmed that the process of insulin resistance is present in children and adolescents. It has been confirmed that those who are overweight as children and adolescents have an associated problem with insulin resistance, abnormal lipids and increased blood sugar (diabetes) as they approach adulthood. When such individuals lose weight, insulin production in their bodies increases, thus, increasing its sensitivity. Research has also shown that left ventricular hypertrophy is also present in children and adolescents as much as it is in adults and it also has similar effects such as; insulin resistance and obesity. There has not been an established cause for the maturity from risk factors in children with cardiovascular diseases in adults (Christian et al, 87). Research shows that weight management in children can go a long way in ensuring one avoids cardiovascular diseases as an adult or they avoid the high risk of getting diabetes mellitus.
Increased body weight has been associated with cardiovascular diseases in both men and women. It has also been the reason for reduced mortality. It is clear that these are all concentrated on the body fat distribution. The more a person has faith in their bodies the higher the chances of developing cardiovascular diseases. This is because when the body is full of fat, it becomes hard for it to function appropriately. This is seen, for example, when an individual with obesity tries to run or cover a long distance when walking, they find it hard and at times they end up collapsing. This is despite the fact that when a physically fit tries to cover the same distance the same way, they do not find it as difficult. Individuals with even distribution of body fat are at less risk of being affected, whereas, individuals with central adiposity develop the Obesity and Insulin Resistance Syndrome(Karpe et al, 58).
Insulin resistance syndrome has also been confirmed to cause hypertension. Researchers have determined that the level of insulin in patients suffering from hypertension is significantly higher than required. It also causes different cardiovascular diseases. This is because it is the more the blood sugar levels in the body, the more it affects the functions of the heart and even that of the brain(Romeo et al, 362). If any of these fails to function as required, then one will automatically fall into a crisis that can be life threatening. This is quite dangerous because the body is like a machine that is used in its normal operations and if at any time, one do not function as required, and then it will shut down completely before accepting the foreign command. This has been confirmed to be the case notwithstanding age or sex of the victim. It happens as long as one suffers from the insulin resistance syndrome. Studies have been done to confirm the relationship between weight gain, percentage of body fat and insulin resistance that have shown the three to be correlated in the causes of cardiovascular diseases(Karpe et al, 58). Although hypertension in children is low, it has been confirmed that there are traces appear when they are young and only matures as they approach adulthood. There is evidence from genetic and epidemiological studies that problems with blood pressure stay with an individual over time and can be traced for decades (Romeo et al, 362). This cannot be seen in children, even though it exists.
Insulin resistance syndrome can also cause lipid abnormalities. This happens in both the individuals with normal glucose tolerance and those with abnormal tolerance. This is also reported in individuals suffering from obesity. It also affects individuals with type 2 diabetes, both obese and non-obese. According to Boden et al (139), a study that was conducted among obese and non-obese children showed that there was a notable difference in their lipid formation and this was consistent with the problem of insulin resistance syndrome in the obese children. The obese children were found to be more at risk of contacting many cardiovascular diseases compared to their counterparts.
The understanding of the insulin resistance syndrome in both adults and children is still expanding. Even though there has not been an establishment for the cure of this syndrome, its effects are known and that is what researchers are using to try to find a cure. (Samuel et al, 864) It is easy for one to assume that the syndrome does not exist in children because its effects are not very visible, but if this is done, then the individual will be risking their future because the precursors of cardiovascular diseases are traceable from childhood to adulthood. This is to mean that an individual can have the problem from childhood without their knowledge and it will start showing symptoms when they become adults(Karpe et al, 58). This case is very common due to the assumption that children do not suffer from cardiovascular diseases. As a form of precaution, it is advisable for young children who are at risk to be tested. These children are,1) those with a history of type 2 diabetes in their families, 2) those that are overweight, 3) those with signs of insulin resistance syndrome, 4) those that a racial predisposition. Example; African American or Hispanic. Diagnosis of diabetes is supposed to be done, preferably by the use of fasting glucose. This preference is because there are minimal data to support the use of two-hour value on an oral glucose tolerance test HbA1c. If this is done at an early age, it will prove easier to manage their health as they grow up (Karpe et al, 58). It is also necessary to encourage children to be physically active to reduce the risk of obesity and diabetes.
As more information is gathered and research is being conducted, it is quite necessary to deal with the issue of insulin resistance and diabetes. The key to all this is to change lifestyle and be medically aware an individual's health. This will help in ensuring that the threats are dealt with at an early stage before they mature and become life threatening. When one is found with a disease, it is advisable for them to follow the instructions given in order to control the said disease. (Sung et al, 653) it is advisable to base their arguments on facts and not myths in order to ensure that they are well informed of these problems of obesity and insulin resistance syndrome. Though it can prove to be expensive to manage diabetes, it is better than to let your life be threatened by a controllable problem. There should be sensitised among individuals who do not have an idea of the effects of insulin resistance syndrome and diabetes(Han et al, 103). It should be done in such a way that they are made to understand that even children can be affected by diabetes and that there is a way to find out if one is affected or not. If this is done, it will help in reducing the number of unidentified and untreated case thus reducing the death count of the two diseases.

Works cited

Boden, Guenther. "45Obesity, insulin resistance and free fatty acids." Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity 18.2 (2011): 139.
Glass, Christopher K., and Jerrold M. Olefsky. "Inflammation and lipid signaling in the etiology of insulin resistance." Cell metabolism 15.5 (2012): 635-645.
Han, Myoung Sook, et al. "JNK expression by macrophages promotes obesity-induced insulin resistance and inflammation." Science 339.6116 (2013): 218-222.
Karpe, Fredrik, Julian R. Dickmann, and Keith N. Frayn. "Fatty acids, obesity, and insulin resistance: time for a reevaluation." Diabetes 60.10 (2011): 2441-2449.
Kahn, Barbara B., and Jeffrey S. Flier. "Obesity and insulin resistance." Journal of clinical investigation 106.4 (2000): 473.
Rankinen, Tuomo, et al. "The human obesity gene map: the 2005 update." Obesity 14.4 (2006): 529-644.
Romeo, Giulio R., Jongsoon Lee, and Steven E. Shoelson. "Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and roles of inflammation-mechanisms and therapeutic targets." Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 32.8 (2012): 1771-1776.
Samuel, Varman T., and Gerald I. Shulman. "Mechanisms for insulin resistance: common threads and missing links." Cell 148.5 (2012): 852-871.
Sung, Ki-Chul, et al. "The combined influence of insulin resistance, overweight/obesity, and fatty liver as risk factors for type 2 diabetes." Diabetes care 35.4 (2012): 717-722.
Weyer, Christian, et al. "Hypoadiponectinemia in obesity and type 2 diabetes: close association with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 86.5 (2001): 1930-1935.

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