Free Case Study On Skin Disorders And Cells
Acne vulgaris is a ubiquitous, multifactoral dermatological disease affecting a majority of the teen population. It is a disease of the pilosebaceous follicles of the skin present on the face, neck and chest. The three types of acne lesions are inflammatory, noninflammatory and conglobate acne lesions. More than 30 percent of the teenagers suffer from sufficient severity to warrant medical treatment . Acne occurs due to pathological changes in the pilosebaceous duct. Thickening of the follicular stratum corneum leads to the blockage and accumulation of sebum. The resident skin commensal bacterium Propionibacterium acnes proliferate in the lipid-rich sebaceous follicles causing accumulation of bacterial metabolites, sebum and dead cellular material. Follicular occlusion blocks discharge and ensue and inflammatory response. The immune response determines the extent and duration of the inflammation.
The overall incidence of acne is equal in both the sexes; however, the peak rate of occurrence is 17 years in boys. Ethnic or racial differences do not influence the development of acne, although blacks have a higher incidence of the disease. Acne vulgaris carries a psychological burden in the patients as they feel distress. Other psychological difficulties include body image concerns, anger, depression, anxiety, frustration, embarrassment, social impairment and poor self-esteem . A combination of procedures, such as chemical peeling, punch grafting, subcision, dermal grafting, and dermabrasion produce best results in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Adapalene 1% benzoyl peroxide 2.5 % fixed-combination therapy, topical tretinoin 0.025% and clindamycin 1.2% are safe and effective topical creams, which significantly reduce inflammatory, noninflammatory and total acne lesions .
The process of cell division replaces dead cells with new ones, repairs damaged tissues, and allows living organisms to grow. Cell division is a continuous process in which cells divide and grow. The five stages in the life cycle of a eukaryotic cell are G0, G1, synthesis, G2 and mitosis . During the G1 stage, the cell grows in volume as it produces tRNA, mRNA, ribosomes, enzymes and other components. During the synthesis stage, DNA replication occurs in preparation for the distribution of genes to daughter cells. The G2 stage involves final preparation for mitosis with the synthesis of spindle-fiber proteins. The four stages of mitosis include prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase . The replicated chromatin begins to coil into recognizable chromosomes in the prophase. During the metaphase, chromosomes move to the equator of the cell and attach at their centromeres to the spindle fibers.
During the anaphase, centromeres complete the DNA replication allowing the chromatids to separate toward the poles. During the final phase called telophase, two daughter cells form from the division of cells followed by the reformation of the nuclear membrane and the nucleoli . The fragmentation of the spindle fibers takes place post which, the chromosomes unwind and change into chromatin. On the other hand, meiosis is the division of special kinds of cells for sexual reproduction. Meiosis produces four cells called gametes. Each daughter cell contains half the DNA from the parent cell. Each cell has 23 chromosomes only. The different stages in meiosis are meiosis I and meiosis II . The process is similar to mitosis except for the division of chromosomes. Organelles are different from cells in the way that they perform metabolic processes within the cell. For example, nucleus, mitochondria and golgi apparatus. The cellular organelles stay in a gelatinous fluid called cytosol.
Cregan, Elizabeth. All About Mitosis and Meiosis. Teacher Created Materials, 2007.
Hywel Williams, Michael Bigby, et al. Evidence-Based Dermatology. John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
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