Free Family Social Problems In Brazil Research Paper Example
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Poverty is a social problem and defines a state of an individual being inferior and extremely poor. This kind of social problem is a societal induced circumstance that has a negative impact in any section of the population. In addition, the social problem is associated with conditions and acts that violate the values and norms that make a society. From sociology perspective, the social problem is the difference between the subjects of society or culture that threaten the lives of social groups. The Social problem arises as a result of the occurrence of a substantial difference between morals in a society that are defined by a particular community. Brazilian families are associated with the five sub-cultures that consecutively stand for the geographical region of the Brazil country. In Brazil, social problems have been a segment of various societies for decades of the year.
The social problems have led many families to vanish over time while other families have uprooted the issue in order to accommodate with the evolution of the country. The major social problem in Brazil is poverty and inequality and has become a striking feature. The degrees of poverty and inequality have been constantly higher than expected from a country such as Brazil that has high level of development. Past the decades, inequality in Brazil was not only tremendously high, but also remarkably stable. Fortunately, currently, Brazil has prospered in the meaningful reduction of its poverty rate both in urban and rural areas. The paper will state and explain the major family social problem that is poverty that is accelerated by inequality in Brazil. It will also explain the causes and impact of the poverty problem on society. Additionally, the paper will show the impact of the reduction in income inequality that has a significant effect on poverty, as well as living standards for the poorest citizens.
Scope of the poverty
It was well said that the poor will always be with us, but the question is, does the condition remain the same? No, every country has its own history as well as challenges. Brazil as a continent-sized nation has glorious and magnificent past. The country has a well fought war against poverty, but inequality had remained inevitable, was on the rise. In Brazil, 10% of the richest people have access to over 40% of the income of the country. On the other hand, 10% of the poorest receive about 1% of the income (Ubirajara 1). This paints a grim image for those with little or unstable financial status. As a result, visitors in the country will likely prove that the poverty level is tangible and visible. The unambiguous difference between the rich and the poor is made even vibrant by the fact that those who live alongside one another can recognize.
The slums in the urban, recognized as favelas, are very common, while the rural areas also clearly financially strained (Herrán 2). There are numerous programs and community initiatives in place to help the homeless and the hungry, as well as to ensure that children from all areas of the societies have access to education. In Brazil, the school system is itself is free, though there are many issues affecting whether or not children can actually locate and attend the schools. Inequality has made poverty in the country to be concentrated in some groups (Herrán 2). Therefore, the sharp decline in poverty did not benefit from the groups equally. According to the research, in the year 2002 one-third of the population of Brazil was declared poor, and the Gini index was equivalent to 58.1 with a revenue distribution sharply slanted to the right.
Causes and impact of the poverty on society
Lack of education
In Brazil, many families find it difficult to raise fees to provide their children high-quality education, especially in rural areas. Poor people have a preference to focus on earning a minimal living to attending school. There are few opportunities for jobs, and this makes people see no reasons to further their education. The people in the middle-income category and above are the only ones that can afford to take their children to school. According to the research conducted by Rural Poverty Portal in 2008 the literacy rate was 90% of people between 15 years and above. Brazil is among the largest countries in terms of population and size. The high population of people in this nation has increased unemployment and people find it difficult to get jobs that reward a decent income. Although sometimes people may find jobs, the wages may not be paying.
In Brazil, the number of jobless people is rampant now that the global financial stress has hit the world economy. The rate of unemployment in February 2015 rose to 5.9% from 5.3% in January 2015.When the number of unemployed people increased, the level of crime rates will also increase as the jobless people are desperate to survive (Lundahl 54). The youths will also begin engaging in prohibited trades like drug trafficking. The number of drug barons in these towns has increased posing a threat to the future generations.
Changes in labor markets in Brazil have increased the level of poverty levels. Historically, people have the knowledge required in manual labor jobs which sourced the skills via vocationally based programs. In Brazil, the number of people wallowing in poverty has increased due to rising inequalities in the distribution of these resources.
The higher the population density in Brazil pressures the current population to use the available resources for the benefit of the nation. According to research conducted by County Meters, the population in Brazil in January 2015 was 205,503,417 which is 1.14% population growth rate. The high population in Brazil is due to birth rates that are brought about by poor family planning and cultural norms. High birth rates among the poor families are because of the assumption that parents perceive children as source of labor. The poor families are unable to practice family planning in their households because of lack of awareness.
Consequences of poverty
In Brazil, consequences of poverty experienced are alarming. Children who are brought up in unprivileged situations are more susceptible to health disorders than do children who grow up in families enjoying financial freedom (Brooks-Gunn & Greg 60). Many children born in poverty tend to have less birth weight that is related with many brains and outside body parts illnesses (Herrán 3). The children have a high probability to be ill and therefore they may die after some time particularly the breaking of the mother’s virginity. Children also from unprivileged families tend to miss important school days because of suffering from diseases. The children are more prone to be involved in accidents than any other children. The children are more likely to suffer from eyes and ears diseases, red blood cells disorders in the blood, lead poisoning which can impair the brain duties in the body.
High intensity of Stress
In Brazil, the financial constraints that individuals undergo have increased stress in them. Research shows that during economic downturns highlighted that job insecurity and consequent poverty was related to misunderstanding in families. Poor families are more susceptible to tension than financially-enabled families. The people in the society are exposed to illnesses, depression, and loss of job, criminal victimization and family death. Guardians who are affected by economic uncertainty become corrective and unpredictable, issuing demands for assaults, blackmail, and physical punishment
Lack of specific dwelling places
This is often associated with possession of uncertainties for people in the society specifically children. The children have low access to proper medical care and nutrition and therefore they suffer from health related disorders. The immune system of these people is so weak to the extent that the people die from the even less dangerous illness. The homeless women deliver the lightest infants, and experience higher rates of infant mortality. The sources of stress among homeless families include break-ups in family relationships, friendships and increased disturbance in working place. Sociologists have had the desire to have the awareness of the consequences of poverty on the blacks in the lower middle-class category. The middle-class group is mostly jobless and lives in the suburbs (Herrán 4). Most of the factories that previously offered job security to these blacks have been closed, and new industries have been established in the suburbs. The available jobs these industries provide require highly skilled human resources and this has limited the number of these blacks to be employed leading to unemployment. Children that have been brought up in poverty are at a dangerous situation to pursue their career dreams. The lack of access to good jobs leaves a room for more debt situation to them. The cycle repeats itself till the array begins to break.
Philosophy of country
Brazil is a stunning country with natural treasures, rich in cultures, languages, and customs. However, similar to any country in the world, the country has its fair segment of social problems, in which its citizens and government are work hard to find a resolution. Brazil has come a long way in fighting poverty, and currently the country is in a situation of reducing poverty and inequality (Ubirajara 2). The government via NGOs has achieved a significant process in reducing poverty. The government has spelled out main challenges as well as policy implications for reducing inequality and poverty in a short period. The standpoint of the Brazilian government has ensured that about 40 million Brazilians have been stepped out from below poverty level and join middle classes.
Contrary, Brazil is a middle-income nation with a major industrial power in its environmental locations, but poverty and inequality remain epidemic in parts of the country. Over the two decades, the government has emerged successful in eradicating rural poverty. In Brazil, about 25% of the rural populations are considered destitute, compared to 5% of the urban populations. Therefore, these issues remain a persistent concern in rural areas. In rural areas, 40% of households are made up of smallholder farmers who depend on produce for their livelihoods. In amazement, 46% are landless and unemployed laborers. Agricultural activities in the country are affected by adverse climate conditions resulting in a frequent occurrence of crop failure.
However, through NGOs such as IFAD that is working closely with the government (Ubirajara 2). The organization has a stand like a pillar to reduce poverty and increase the production of poor people in rural areas in ways that are sustainable and hence protect the environment. Currently, the federal government is in corroboration with IFAD, state, and municipal government as well as locally based organizations. The governments and organizations have started an ongoing project that will focus in the semi-arid region. For example in Paraiba there was Carirí and Seridó sustainable development project (Salardi 42). The aim of the project was improving social infrastructure, as well as the productive activities of smallholders in rural areas.
Currently, the nation is in a position to handle the situation of poverty through sustainable development projects. Both federal and state governments of Brazil have come up with policies that encourage social investment and poverty reduction. However, the paper aims to recommend some policies that will eradicate poverty and inequality. The governments' should provide safety net systems for the unprivileged families throughout the nation which include launching income transfer programs (Ubirajara 3). The government can also develop semi-arid zones through establishing irrigation programs to boost the country food basket. Promoting access to land through agrarian reform that include building institutions that facilitate issue of identity cards to help the needy access the finances from financial institutions. The government can invest in infrastructure by launching programs like rural electrification programs. The electricity will improve standards of living due to cheap sources of energy associated with it.The governments can boost the small scale farmers by buying their products at a higher price to give them morale to continue investing in agricultural farming.
The governments can launch awareness of environmental protection and establish institutions that cater to environment conservation. The government can start award winning competitions to cover the people who have fought for environmental protection (Ubirajara 3). The introduction of institutions to give awareness to the public of the importance of land management will improve how people perceive land. The players in the private sectors should be encouraged to invest because this will offer a wide range of opportunities. These private sectors should be given flexibility in accessing the larger markets in the micro enterprises. The governments should support the provision of high-quality education through the development of a medium-term policy education agenda.
In conclusion, it is evident that poverty continues to be a social and economic problem to the people of Brazil. Though the prevention measures are put in place, this social problem continues to worsen. Therefore, all organizations should formulate the effective measure that can address poverty issue effectively. The government should also enhance the programs that address the causal roots of the poverty problem. For instance, the government should provide safety net systems for the unprivileged families throughout the nation which include launching income transfer programs. In this standpoint, Brazilian government is eradicating poverty that is in its citizens to improve their living standards. By doing so, the government will eradicate this main social problem from many families, and lowers chance of having any social-related problem. It evident that impact of the eradicating income inequality has a significant impact on poverty, as well as living standards for the poorest citizens.
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, and Greg J. Duncan. "The effects of poverty on children." The future of children (1997): 55-71.
Herrán, Carlos Alberto. Reducing poverty and inequality in Brazil. Inter-American Development Bank, 2005. Retrieved from http://publications.iadb.org/bitstream/handle/11319/4048/Reducing%20Poverty%20and%20Inequality%20in%20Brazil.pdf?sequence=1
Lundahl, Mats. Knut Wicksell on the Causes of Poverty and It's Remedy. London: Routledge, 2012. Print.
Machado/, Ubirajara. "Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty in Brazil." Google. N.p., 2012. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.
SALARDI, PAOLA. "Essays on Poverty, Inequality and Well-Being in Brazil." (2008). Retrieved from http://tesionline.unicatt.it/bitstream/10280/229/5/TESTO_COMPLETO.pdf
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