Free Report On Waste Management In India: Conserve Ngo

Type of paper: Report

Topic: Waste, Waste Management, India, Management, City, Town, Disposal, Aliens

Pages: 5

Words: 1375

Published: 2020/12/23


The world’s environmental resources continue to face significant challenges. With the increase of the world population, there are various pressures exerted on the environment. Precisely, the increased population has both constructive and adverse effects on the society. For instance, increased population has ensured the availability of cheap labor. On the other hand, population explosion bears negatively on the exploitation of the natural resources such as land and trees. As well, waste disposal issues have become a major concern in many countries. Industrial expansions in most countries have come with a share of environmental pollution. The purpose of this report is to highlight and discuss the state of solid waste disposal in India. In addition, we will look at how Conserve, an NGO involved in waste management, can help to tackle the menace.
The ENGO I would like to work with is called Conserve in India, established in 1998 by Anita Ahuja and Shalabh. Apparently, the principal mandate of the organization was to facilitate the recycling of plastic bags in India. The central area of concern is the environmental threats posed by the alarming increase in plastic paper bag waste disposal in India (Conserve). According to Narayana, recycling of some waste plays a significant role in managing the urban waste in the developing countries (Narayana, 2009).


Solid waste management is a primary concern in India. The total urban population of India is 285 million. India has 4,378 cities and towns. Apparently, according to the 2001 census, 423 of the cities and towns are considered Class I. Class I means that these cities comprise of more than 100,000 people. Notably, the category I cities contribute 72% to of the total urban waste in India (Asnani, & Zurbrugg, 2007).
According to McDougall et al. (2008), the problem of collection, treatment, transport and disposal of the Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) poses significant financial strain to the local authorities. As well, they are a serious strain on the physical capabilities of the local authorities. As such, there is the need for concerted efforts in addressing the problem.

Why the organization should care

70-80% of the solid waste in the Asian cities comprise of organic matter, dust and earth. Composting is considered one of the major ways of handling solid waste (Narayana, 2009). Since 1989, more than five thousand dirty streets in Madras in South India have witnessed absolute transformation. Out of the efforts put in place, residents have continued to manage their waste by financing ragpickers to collect their waste and to clean the streets. EXNORA succeeded in motivating their residents to take personal initiatives in managing their wastes. Apparently, EXNORA was the brainchild of an Indian banker in Madras in 1989. The bank officer was concerned about the increase of municipal waste in the streets. The idea that the solution to waste disposal practices lay with those involved in it was the principle behind the founding of EXNORA. The banker’s efforts led to the development of plans to formulate and practice EXcellent, NOvel and Radical (EXNORA) strategies to solve the waste problem (McDougall et al., 2008). Thus, Conserve should consider increasing its efforts towards addressing the waste disposal problem.
What causes the issue. Those involved. What to consider.
Various entities are party to the poor waste management in India. Industrial and household waste contributes significantly to the set of poor waste management in India. In addition, cultural and financial constraints of the people worsen the status. The increase of industrialization and urbanization has led to more solid wastes being released into the environment. Certainly, the waste comes from various quarters such as hotels, parks, restaurants, fruit markets the construction and demolition debris (McDougall et al., 2008).
According to Narayana (2009), landfills also contribute significantly to India’s waste. Municipal council landfills contain leachate. Apparently, leachate contains high concentrations of toxic chemicals. Indeed, leachate has been considered responsible for the contamination of surface water ecosystems and groundwater supplies. Notably, leachate contains numerous solid toxins that affect the environment. These include mercury, organophosphates, cadmium, toluene, and PCBs.

The Conceptual Model

According to Narayana (2009), lack of involvement of the civil society has significantly compounded the problem of solid waste in India. There are various stakeholders involved in the status of waste management in India. A case study of Lucknow produced crucial information on this matter. Apparently, Lucknow is the main metropolis in Northern India. Lucknow had succumbed to the trouble of municipal solid waste and its management. A community SWOT study realized the need for harnessing both community and municipal corporation resources in addressing the solid waste issue (Srivastava et al., 2005).


The question of solid waste management hinges significantly on the availability of mechanisms and structural frameworks of the government. Notably, the governments of most developing countries suffer significant resource shortage to tackle the problem. As such, community participation in MSW is a crucial factor(Srivastava et al., 2009)
Landfills are one of the methods if waste disposal in India. However, it poses significant health challenges. For instance, landfills have been found to contain leachate. Apparently, leachate has been noted to be responsible for certain cancers. The combination of waste decomposition produced toxic fumes, which also causes air pollution. Accordingly, the combination of thermal, chemical and microbial reactions in the landfill wastes causes production and emission of toxic gasses (Narayana, 2009).


Inadequate disposal of solid water is responsible for various effects on the community. The menace of plastic bags is responsible for suffocations of children at the household levels. In addition, plastic waste has contributed significantly to the blockages of most sewers and sewer lines. As a result, the drain water spills to the houses and streets pose the danger of water-borne disease outbreaks in India.
Incineration and composting can certainly help reduce the hazardous effects of the solid wastes in India. However, there is need for adequate care when burning to avoid the detrimental impact of the incinerators. The burning of the wastes produces incinerator ash. Studies show that incinerator ash may contain dangerous elements such as heavy metals. In addition, they may contain organic compounds such as dioxins (Narayana, 2009).
According to McDougall et al., (2008) plastic recycling in India can be improved by establishing the post-consumer plastic waste centers. Certainly, this method would bring about a two-pronged benefit. On one hand, it would contribute to higher quantities of waste deposited by users. On the contrary, this method would ensure proper facilitation of the waste picking efforts. Indeed, once picked, the waste can be taken to the licenses recycling units. Ideally, one of the benefits of the licensed units is that they will ensure product quality. Moreover, they will contribute to the government revenue through taxation.
Other alternatives to the question of waste management in India include the conversion of waste to energy. According to McDougall et al. the waste to energy technologies such as gasification, anaerobic digestion, pelletization, and pyrolysis are probable methods Various areas in India have initiated such projects successfully. For instance, the refuse-based fuel production plants established in Andhra Pradesh in 2003 produced a total of 6.5 megawatts of power (McDougall et al.2008). Thus, this could be a productive venture that conserve could consider.
Certainly, stakeholder involvement in the waste management and disposal has crucial implications for India’s development. Both the municipal authorities and private investors must work closely to ensure proper management. According to Srivastava et al., the participatory approach in waste management holds important means of addressing the problem. Indeed, the stake-holder-based SWOT analysis helped to explore the ways of transforming the waste disposal threats into opportunities. In addition, it assisted in changing the weaknesses into strengths. Undoubtedly, stakeholder inputs such as expertise and information base can play a significant role in developing the strategic action plans for the problem (Srivastava et al., 2005).
Municipal authorities should chart out measures, which encourage private participation. Municipalities can make is conducting awareness campaigns among the people concerning their role in solving the solid waste problem. Such awareness campaigns can take various forms. For instance, they can use the door-to-door awareness and motivation programs. In addition, the municipalities can make use of the major celebrations in India. For example, waste management activities can feature prominently in the Earth Day and the Environment Day. Other awareness efforts would include rallies, street plays, and signature campaigns, clean up drives, open forums (Narayana, 2009).
In addition, the municipal councils can organize occasions in which the scouts, national cadet corps, and the national social service get involved in environmental campaign. Mahila Mandals and the women’s’ associations can also play a significant role. Best gardens competitions are also increasingly becoming productive avenues for environmental awareness. Notably, the joint efforts aiming for the proper segregation of the solid waste can significantly reduce if people participate well. Moreover, appropriate measures are required to ensure the proper recovery of water at both the industrial and household levels(Narayana, 2009).
Stakeholder’s involvement ranges from different sections. For instance, According to Asnani these efforts can involve the schools to write essays that inspire and create awareness among the people on solid waste. Moreover, the self-help and women groups can play a vital role in the realization of proper waste disposal and management. For instance, Conserve can plan seminars and workshops, which motivate the entrepreneurship in waste management. Lessons on recycling of compost, plastics, and paper waste among women can serve a double effect benefit. For instance, it can knead to economic empowerment of the women as well as inspiring waste accountability among them ( Narayana, 2009).


In conclusion, the question of solid waste disposal certainly has adverse effects on the community. There is need for considering the stakeholders involved in the proliferation of the waste issue. On the other hand, there is the need for a concerted effort between the Government of India and the private sector in tackling this problem. With sustained efforts, solid waste management in India can improve. Certainly, Conserve can explore the ideas mentioned in this discussion as a means of achieving its primary goal of addressing the problem of plastic waste.


I address these issues to Conserve NGO in India


Asnani, P. U., & Zurbrugg, C. (2007). Improving municipal solid waste management in India: A sourcebook for policymakers and practitioners. World Bank Publications.
Conserve.(n.d) Retrieved March 18, 2015 from
McDougall, F. R., White, P. R., Franke, M., & Hindle, P. (2008). Integrated solid waste management: a life cycle inventory. John Wiley & Sons.
Narayana, T. (2009). Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources?. Waste Management, 29(3), 1163-1166.
Srivastava, P. K., Kulshreshtha, K., Mohanty, C. S., Pushpangadan, P., & Singh, A. (2005). Stakeholder-based SWOT analysis for successful municipal solid waste management in Lucknow, India. Waste Management, 25(5), 531-537.

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