Free Research Proposal On Does Social Media Has An Influence On Interpersonal Relationships?
With technology blooming in the last decade, social media has become the core of modern day society as platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter have aimed to keep people connected by one way or another. Such provides not only an interesting but also rather important question of whether or not social media has an influence on interpersonal relationships. Given social media’s recent popularity, the effect it has within such relationships has not been closely examined.
There are many aspects of interpersonal relationship that we can research in relation to the social networking sites. The growing usage of social networking changes the lifestyle of the individuals, the culture of society, and the way businesses connect to their clients. Interaction through social media has been an increasing trend as reflected in the continuous inclusion of the social networking sites in the features of any new phone or any advance technology.
Social networking sites can be useful, enjoyable, and helpful to many users. However, it can also be risky and detrimental in some instances. The fast transmission of information is disadvantageous to people who are victims of privacy violation. People in the fraud business can now have easier access to the information of the individuals they wish to victimize. As a result, it is important to take a close look on such incidents as we recognize the importance and usefulness of the social networking sites.
Background of the Problem
Kathryn Porter and her associates conducted a research entitled A Study of the Effects of Social Media Use and Addiction on Relationship Satisfaction. The authors mentioned that their research was limited to Facebook, Twitter and Chapterboard users. The percentage of participants based on races is limited. Hence, the research could not reflect the general information about the social media use in the country (Porter, 2010). Their study of the relationship was also limited to friendship (Porter, 2010).
Rianne C. Farrugia of the Rochester Institute of Technology made a research entitled Facebook and Relationships: A Study of How Social Media Use is Affecting Long-Term Relationships. Her scope, however, was limited to Facebook users in studying the impact of social networking sites in the romantic relationships (Farrugia, 2013). This research will discuss the interpersonal relationship of the Facebook users in the scope of family, relatives, friends, and romantic partner. The study will reveal if Facebook is destructive or helpful in nurturing the said relationships and if it causes privacy risks to the users. It will also evaluate the extent of the risks in Facebook.
Review of Related Literature
There are several researches that have been conducted about the social network usage and its impact on interpersonal relationships. Manjunatha S. of the University of Mysore had a study entitled A Sociological Study on the Influence of Social Networking Sites on the Interpersonal Relationships of College Students in Bangalore and Mysore Cities of India and revealed that the usage of the social networking sites improved the relationships of the college students in Bangalore with their families, friends, and teachers (Manjunatha, 2013).
Toni Didona and her associations revealed in their study entitled An Investigation into Facebook and its Relationship with Interpersonal Skills that the lack of interpersonal skills of the older adult does not pose a threat in the workplace against the younger adults who are more likely to use social networking sites and develop interpersonal skills (Didona, Toni. et.al., 2013).
Judith Noronha and her associates in their study entitled Online Social Networking among Professional Students: Impact on Interpersonal Relationship stated that the availability of the online social networking poses threats of usage addiction among the young adults. She stressed the need to have online safety training to prevent the risks associated to it (Noronha et.al., 2014).
Hamza Khalil Al-Khaddam of the CS Canada noted in her research entitled Impact of Social Networks on Interpersonal Communication of the Students University College Irbid Girls: Facebook as a Model revealed that social networking sites have an impact on the interpersonal skills of the college students. Hence, the research should warn the college students about the negative issues that may affect their relationship to their families (Al-Khaddam, 2013).
John Drussell of the St. Catherine University noted in his research, Social Networking and Interpersonal Communication and Conflict Resolution Skills among College Freshmen, that technology played an important role in the enhancement of the interpersonal skills of the college freshmen through texting and through social networking sites. However, such communication method decreases human touch, and the respondents agree that such can be generic and impersonal. It limits emotions in the process of communication (Drussel, 2012).
Theoretical foundations/conceptual framework
There are three theories that can be applied in this research, and these are the Network Theory and Analysis, the Communication Technology and Theory, and the Social Cognitive Theory.
Network Theory and Analysis focuses on the study of the relationship of the society, individual, organization, and their communicative actions, patterns, and structure. The assumption is the individuals are interconnected with communication patters (University of Twente, 2015). The Communication Technology and Theory focus on the impact of the internet technology to the society and interpersonal communication (Gravity 7, 2015) (University of Twente, 2015). The Social Cognitive Theory focuses the study on the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral impact of the communication. Its assumption is that environment and people affects or changes behaviors (University of Twente, 2015).
Nowadays, social networking sites and its usage are becoming prevalent. With such prevalence, individuals are able to enhance their relationships with their families, friends, loved ones, and others. However, there are negative impacts of the usage of the social networking sites. It is believed that social networking sites make relationship less personal. Excessive usage or addiction to this mode of communication also results to people’s low awareness on privacy issues and fraud. This research will focus on analyzing whether social networking sites makes interpersonal communication less personal and whether high usage of it results to the victimization of individuals on privacy violation and fraud.
Research Question(s) and Phenomenon or Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Variables
The research aims to prove whether the social networking sites have negative impact in the interpersonal skills of the individuals in a way that it makes communication and relationship less personal. The research also aims to study if the social networking sites users are prone to be a victim of privacy violation and fraud. The research will use quantitative research analysis. We will use the survey method to quantify the responses, perspectives, and behavior of the survey participants. The random sampling will be among the residents of Arkansas ages 20-40. The research will interview at least 100 residents. The research will use interview question to qualify the responses of the participants.
The research will ask questions about the frequency, purpose, and unique encounters of individuals in the social networking sites. They will also be asked about their perceived advantages and disadvantages of social networking sites as well as the important changes in their lives since they used the social networking sites.
Significance of the Study
The results and findings of the research study will help us determine up to what extent the social networking sites affects our lives negatively or positively. If the research study revealed more advantages and positive changes in the human life, concerned stakeholders will have more reasons to further develop the technology that can continue advance human benefits and interest. If the research findings revealed more negative impact, the society and the stakeholders can find effective precautionary measures to prevent harm and danger.
The study can also be an example or another proof for existing technology and interpersonal communication theory. It can also contribute in the field of Psychology as we will be able to study the patterns of behavior relating to social networking frauds and privacy violation as observed or learned from the victim and oppressor based on the statements of the respondents.
The research can also provide a picture on the prevalence of the risks of the social networking sites and examine if the available methods of prevention are sufficient to protect the lives, privacy and livelihood of the individuals.
As mentioned above, the researcher will use survey questionnaires to determine the responses of the participants. The survey questionnaire will measure the age of the respondents, frequency, and the amount of time they use the social networking sites. The survey will also ask questions about the respondents’ negative and positive experiences in the social networking sites. The study will also use desk researches to search for information about the similar trend that are probably occurring in other groups. The desk research will provide a bigger picture of the trends on behavior, interpersonal skills, and negative incidents relating to social networking sites.
The usefulness of the methodologies will depend on the list of the questions that could unearth adept and insightful responses. The questions need to be organized in a way that will answer at least four important determinants of the interpersonal relationship with regards to social networking. Such should include time of exposure, activities, nature of social activities, developed relationships, and positive or negative impact/effects obtained from using social networking sites.
Desk research should also be extensive. There are wide availability of sources now about social media tackling various usage trends and its advantages and risks to the certain group of individuals, population, and organization. Desk research can be a useful tool in comparing and understand the research findings of the study.
The research design is quantitative. We will use the random sampling to identify the potential respondents for the survey. We will design a quantitative survey questionnaires, and use averaging, ratios, and percentage to identify results and trends.
The study will rely on the survey questionnaire as its primary research. Desk resource will be used to support and understand the trend and any findings that will arise from the study. It is important to note that the combination of the said primary and secondary research should be extensive enough to develop a report that will have a broad perspective in the type of interpersonal relationship issues arising from using the social networking sites.
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this quantitative research is to determine and examine whether the social networking sites generally have negative impact to the interpersonal communication and relationship of the individuals. It also aims to measure the incidence of the victimization of individuals from privacy violation and fraud. The research will be useful in addressing relationship problems and the privacy violations and fraud issues confronting the social media users nowadays. According to the research study of Alireza Azimi and Abouzar Abbaspour Ghomi of the International Conference on Emerging Trends in Computer and Image Processing (ICETCIP) Bangkok, Thailand, many of the social networking sites friends of the users are not really real-life friends or even acquaintances. Such, they said, exposed themselves with physical and security risks as sensitive information are shared publicly in the social networking sites (Asimi et.al. 2011).
The researchers will use quantitative research design to have a more objective findings, and will target the residents of Arkansas ages 20-40 as the respondents. Targeting the young adult and old adults as samples is advantageous as they are likely the people who have attained a level of maturity. Hence, they are a good measure to determine the sophistication level of the strategies of the privacy violators and fraudsters to affect the mature population. The young and old adults are also the group of people who are more likely to be busy due to work and hence, are a good determinant if social media is helpful in establishing and maintaining relationships or a hindrance to a more meaningful personal relationship.
It has been said in some researches that social networking sites usage can be addictive due to the enjoyment benefits it provides to the consumers. As such we need to closely examine if too much enjoyment on such benefits can lead to nativity and low awareness of the potential destruction and risks of the social networking sites. It is also important to include in the desk research the possibility of checking any regulations protecting the citizens who can be a victim from the privacy violations and fraud. Statistics from the official sources about the prevalence of victimization can also help understand the scope and importance of studying our research problem.
Desk research and, if possible, additional interview of the social networking site will give us insightful information about the owners are doing to prevent privacy violation and fraud. The research will also understand if such efforts are effective in curbing the risks behind the usage of the social networking sites.
The data of the research will be collected from the survey results, observation, news articles or desk researches, and library for any other pertinent statistical information. The research will get data from the government agencies to list all the relevant studies and relate such statistics to the research and findings. The research will also quantify the impact of the actions of the social networking owners in preventing risks through evaluation if the incidence of such risks lowered after the implementation of their risk prevention action plans.
According to an academic publishing website, SAGE, surveys are efficient and systematic way of collecting data. It has advantages of versatility, efficiency, and generalizability which are applicable in studying broader spectrum of individuals and educational settings (SAGE, 2015).
The research of Manjunatha S. entitled A Sociological Study on the Influence of Social Networking Sites on the Interpersonal Relationships of College Students in Bangalore and Mysore Cities of India (2013) validates that survey questionnaires, observation, desk researches, and statistical researches from libraries and concerned government offices are applicable and appropriate for this research. The said instrumentation is valid as it provides general perception of a certain group of individuals as well as the stakeholders. The whole research process may last up to two- three months.
Data Analysis Procedure
The University of Reading Statistical Services Centre listed the approaches in analyzing survey data, and these include one-way tables, cross tabulation, tabulation and the assessment of accuracy, multiple response data, profiling, indicators, and cluster analysis for the group of respondents (The University of Reading Statistical Services Centre, 2001).
As mentioned earlier, it is important to detail the survey questions answering various aspects of the interpersonal relationship such as time of exposure, activities, nature of social activities, developed relationships, and positive or negative impact/effects obtained from using social networking sites. The survey questions should also be further developed as the research progresses.
The researcher will strictly adhere to the privacy agreement between the researchers and respondents in relation to their identity and other information beyond the stated in the questionnaires. The researcher will also respect the right of the respondents to decline some or all of the questions.
All information that will be obtained will be held in strict confidentiality. We will only use the consolidated information obtained. The researcher will also respect the right of the source to refuse to provide full names or if he or she refuse to include his or her name in the content of the research study.
Scope and Limitation
As the respondents will be limited to 100 and to the residents of the Arkansas, the research may not be a reflection of the national trend and incidence. The limitation in the number of respondents and location, however, is sufficient to reflect a trend in the technology, interpersonal communication and relationship among the young adult and old adults.
The research will tackle various aspects of relationships in the social networking including family, relatives, friends, and even acquaintances as we are going to evaluate the incidence and likelihood of fraud and privacy violations occurrences. The respondents are limited to the people age 20-40 as the research interest is the trend among the young adult and old adults.
Finally, it is recommended that in the future similar evaluation should also be applied to the teens and even children as social networking usage is also increasingly becoming prevalent among the said age group. It is also advisable for the future studies to examine trends representing all states to have a national reflection of the behaviors and incidents in the interpersonal communication relating to social networking. Equal representation of races and income brackets is also advisable.
The research will basically tackle pros and the cons of the social networking sites in relations to the interpersonal communication, The research will use simple way of collecting and analyzing data from the collective respondents of Arkansas. The paper will be beneficial to the individuals who are having troubles in their relationship as a result of the increasingly becoming less personal interaction and those who are vulnerable to security issues and fraud.
At this early stage, based on the research proposal plan presented, we can conclude that the research may take at least two months if we are to consider an adept report indicating all trends, statistics, measures, quantitative results of the responses, and the qualitative responses that are one of the bases of insights.
The research is also expected to consolidate information from official sources, survey results, It will cross examine and weigh the benefits as compared to the current present risks and derive to an understanding whether social networking promotion and usage should be regulated and at to what extent. Part of the desk research will be an analysis of what the social networking sites owner are doing to address the studied negative impacts.
Porter, Kathryn, et.al. 2010. A Study of the Effects of Social Media Use and Addiction on Relationship Satisfaction. Open Journal System. Retrieved from http://journals.chapman.edu/ojs/index.php/mc/article/viewFile/340/735
Farrugia, Rianne. September (Porter, 2010) 4l 2013. Facebook and Relationships: A Study of How Social Media Use is Affecting Long-Term Relationships. Rochester Institute of Technology. Retrieved from http://scholarworks.rit.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1033&context=theses
Manjunatha S. June 2013. A Sociological Study on the Influence of Social Networking Sites on the Interpersonal Relationships of College Students in Bangalore and Mysore Cities of India. University of Mysore. Retrieved from http://www.isca.in/IJSS/Archive/v2/i6/3.ISCA-IRJSS-2013-071.pdf
Didona, Toni. et.al. 2013. An Investigation into Facebook and its Relationship with Interpersonal Skills. WEI International Academic Conference Proceedings. Retrieved from http://www.westeastinstitute.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/ORL13-140-Arleena-Full-Paper.pdf
Noronha, Judith. et.al al. 2014. Online Social Networking among Professional Students: Impact on Interpersonal Relationship, International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/6264887/Online_Social_Networking_among_Professional_Students_Impact_on_Interpersonal_Relationship
Al-Khaddam, Hamza Khalil. October 16, 2013. Impact of Social Networks on Interpersonal Communication of the Students University College Irbid Girls: Facebook as a Model. CS Canada. Retrieved from http://www.cscanada.net/index.php/ccc/article/viewFile/j.ccc.1923670020130905.2776/5247
Drusell John, 2012. Social Networking and Interpersonal
Communication and Conflict Resolution Skills among College Freshmen. St. Catherine University. Retrieved from http://sophia.stkate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1021&context=msw_papers
Gravity 7. 2015. Writings. Gravity 7. Retrieved from http://gravity7.com/articles_investigation_toc.html
Azimi, et.al. 2011. Social Networks Privacy Issues That Affect
Young Societies. International Conference on Emerging Trends in Computer and Image Processing (ICETCIP). Retrieved from http://psrcentre.org/images/extraimages/126.%201211804.pdf
SAGE. 2015. Survey Results. SAGE. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/43589_8.pdf
The University of Reading Statistical Services Centre. 2001. Approaches to the
Analysis of Survey Data. The University of Reading Statistical Services Centre. Retrieved from https://www.reading.ac.uk/ssc/n/resources/Docs/Approaches_to_the_analysis_of_survey_data.pdf