Free The Contemporary Globalization Of Andhra Pradesh Research Paper Example
The importance of understanding the meaning and scope of globalization as a concept in the everyday life of mankind is evident from the influence it has upon different aspect of the populations across the world. The scientific world has learned that the catastrophe of widespread rise of atmospheric temperature is of global impact and called it ‘global warming’ which, like floods and draughts has political influence over the geographical areas under its impact. Christian Parenti helps the readers make a comprehensive investigation of the globalization of many places across the world with his book Tropic of Chaos. From among the details of many places, the readers can enjoy an interactive learning experience while understanding how the climate change affects the regional politics. This paper will explain how Andhra Pradesh, a south-central state in India, is globalized for the intersecting relationship between the geographical and climatic conditions and the political chaos of this region on the basis of the observations and findings made by Christian Parenti.
Andhra Pradesh: Political Divide of Geography
Unfavorable geographical specifications resulted from climate changes have always affected the political structure of many regions of the world. Scientific studies of the inner-lying relationship between politics and geography makes some solid but usually unnoticed facts about many places. India as a subcontinent has a diverse geography, and therefore the country experiences varying climatic conditions throughout the year with regards to rains, floods, draughts, storms and landslides besides the scorching heat during summers and the icy cold winds of the winter. Located at the south central portion of India, the state of Andhra Pradesh witnesses the impacts of climate variations in different magnitudes. The biggest problem of geographical challenges before the hundred million population of the state arises from the frequent folds and heavy draughts which are annually worsened by the extreme downpour of rains and violent tornados over the coastal belt of the state. The geographical diversity and the impacting climatic conditions have made a strategic seclusion among the people who are categorically separated to make the state divided into three major political regions such as Telangana, Rayalaseema and Coastal Andhra.
The influence of the adverse climate often felt over the Telangana region which occupies the majority of the state’s most troubled peasant lives. The barrenness due to insufficient rains in this region results in poor for agricultural productivity and promotes poverty and social backwardness. However, a capitalist image of the Indian industrial growth can be traced from Telangana as it homes a number of factories and many units of heavy industries whose owners generally belong to the cash rich regions of Coastal Andhra with the collaboration of the affluent class from Rayalaseema. This economic equation of the industrialization of Andhra Pradesh has made a political separatism between the native Telangana people and the people of other regions in the state. As Sathish reports in IBN Live, the urge for socio-economic security for the people of Telangana reached a height at which the Telangana people wanted a separate state for them with Hyderabad as its capital and continued to fight for this until they got the ultimate partition. Thus Telangana, under the strong leadership of K Chandrasekar Rao, became the 29th state in India on June 2, 2014.
Rivers and Vegetation
The nourishment of the cultivable lands of Andhra Pradesh is guaranteed by the plenty of rivers that flows in the state. Some of the biggest rivers in this region are the Godavari, The Krishna, the Thungabhadra, the Pennar and the Vamsadhara. The major rivers Krishna and Godavari contribute greatest to the vegetation of the state by fulfilling the needs the farmers belonging to the state. However, the exploitation of these rivers to the fullest is done in the Coastal Andhra region. The Godavari is the second largest river in India, which has a number of tributaries in Andhra Pradesh itself. The water collected by the Godavari from different tributaries flow out into all major states in the Telangana region before it settles down to the greatest expanse in East and West Godavari districts. The Krishna, being the second largest river in the state, drains the Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions. As rivers are the basic contributors of early settlements, a number of cities are located on the banks of these rivers. As Indian Travel Portal describes, the cities like Rajahmundry and Kakinada are on the bank of the Godavari. The present capital of the divided Andhra Pradesh, Vijayawada, is on the bank of the Krishna; while Kurnool, the biggest city in the Rayalaseema region is on the bank of the Thungabhadra (Indian Travel Portal). These rivers greatly affect the vegetation and agriculture of the entire state with differences in advantages for each of the major regions. As such, the less privileged population in the southwestern Telangana region resort to violent protests for water during the dry months every year.
Global Warming on Agriculture
Agriculture in Andhra Pradesh is subject the impacts of climate changes. The production of cotton and other commercial crops is the main output of the farming sector of the Telangana region; while the Coastal region and the southern regions extract the benefit of rains and rivers and the farmers of these areas produce rice, pulses and vegetable. The water reserves in the low-lying plains and rivers give them added opportunities to produce fish and shrimps etc besides the chances of wealth from the Bay of Bengal. However, the impact of global warming can hit the productivity of agriculture with the rivulets and streams either drying up or disappearing in the course of time. The adverse effect of climate change is a global concern. According to some reliable estimates presented by Vidal in his article Climate change: how a warming world is a threat to our food supplies, the increasing food prices and the prolonged problem of lacking agricultural productivity due to climate changes are topics that claim alarming focus in the present world.
In Andhra Pradesh, the fluctuations in productivity influences the prices of commercial crops like cotton and oilseeds and the conditions frequently worsens to the levels where governments fail to deliver a convincing response to the farmer’s needs. Rains are the only resource for water and the draughts ruin the capacity of the farmers to ensure the mere survival in most cases. Parenti says, “In Andhra Pradesh, an estimated 2,000 to 3,000 farmers killed themselves between 1998 and 2004” (143). Farmers are at the receiving end of the corruption on the other side of the geographical challenges. The changing political parties give little attention for the plight of the farmers in times of need, and instead, the trend of a bureaucracy-manifested-political corruption and the official negligence results in the delay of awarding funds and compensations to the farmers. Finally, the fear of loss of social socio-economic security of the families directly reflects in the changing trust of the public that elects the government from varying political combinations. As the only means to react is public protests, the farmers take their agitation to the roads and public properties, which remains a never-ending crisis in the state. Parenti suggests that the issues pertaining to the effective and socialized utilization of water has traditional history and therefore, they cannot be resolved without collective participation of the government and the local authorities (141).
The Telangana-Andhra Divide and Politics of Draughts
The life of the people in the Telangana region is comparatively harder and riskier than the Coastal Andhra people because of frequent climate issues, mainly the unbearable draught. The districts like Mehboobnagar, Warangal, Adilabad and Khammam experience the worst of temperature and draught during the summers which affect the agriculture very badly. The geographical disadvantages used to increase to unbearable conditions of the socio-economic life of the people of the affected region. Social and economic insecurity due to declined agricultural income and lack of employment among the youth staged by the topographic features and their adverse impact on the population of some secluded regions jointly homed rebel movements. According to Parenti, the geographical disadvantages of the Andhra Pradesh population give the reason for the existence of the oldest group of the guerilla warfare known as the Naxalites (134). The author connects the literature in the perspectives of the farmers of the northern provinces of Andhra Pradesh with the Naxalite ideologies with the references of the revolutionary movements carried out by the adivasis (the indigenous tribals) of the region. Even the people from higher order of the religious classes were also subjected to the discrimination prevailed in the economic facet of the state which forced them to join the direct protests against the government which was dominantly occupied by the rich classes of the prosperous regions of the state. The Naxalites are of course, the members of the banned group of activists who undertake violence in protest against the government. Besides the gory treatment of the Maoists, the government had to face the continuous agitations by the common public; and for all the chaos in the political Andhra Pradesh, the reason was temperature rise and the increasing need for water.
The climate change and related issues in the region have attracted the global attention. The experts from the western nations criticize the Indian government’s traditional urge for development without concern for environment in this regard. The conflicts-bound politics of Andhra Pradesh has long been a headache for the changing governments as long as the system remains unchanged without the settlement proposals for social wellbeing of the Telangana people. According to the finding of Kujur, the political chaos resulting from the unaddressed climate change issues stand as a cause for the refocus of the Maoists of the North Telangana Special Zonal Committee on the districts worst hit by draught-related problems.
A specific analysis of the demographics of most of the places in the globe reveals the intertwined relationship between global warming and the regional politics and associated chaos. Andhra Pradesh, a state in the south-central region of India gives the complex picture of the socioeconomic and political conditions which have deep-rooted relationship with the global phenomenon of climate change. The Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh is lagging behind the development and lifestyle indices of the state. The regional seclusion of Telangana and other draught-hit districts of Andhra Pradesh force the local public to lead protests against the government policies of water management. Naxalites and other revolutionary groups work against the capitalist nexus between the corrupt politicians and bureaucrats, which eventually causes unsettled chaos in the state. The end result is the globalization of Andhra Pradesh, but for concerns and wrong causes.
Indian Travel Portal. Rivers in Andhra Pradesh. http://www.indiantravelportal.com/andhra-pradesh/rivers/
Kujur, Rajat. “Contemporary Naxal Movement in India New Trends, State Responses and Recommendations”. Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, Research Paper 27 May 2013. Web. March 6, 2015. http://www.ipcs.org/pdf_file/issue/RP27-Kujur-Naxal.pdf
Parenti, Christian. Tropic of Chaos: Climate Change and the New Geography of Violence. US: Nation Books, 2012. Print.
Sathish, D. P. “Andhra Pradesh Split: India’s 29th state Telangana is born”. IBNLive. Web March 6, 2015. http://ibnlive.in.com/news/andhra-pradesh-split-indias-29th-state-telangana-is-born/476038-37-64.html
Vidal, John. “Climate change: how a warming world is a threat to our food supplies”. The Guardian, 13 April 2013. Web March 6, 2015. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/apr/13/climate-change-threat-food-supplies