Good A Chronic Disease (Diabetes Type 1) Essay Example
Type 1 diabetes is the disorder in which body is unable to produce sufficient insulin, which is used to convert sugar and other ingredients of food into energy. In this condition, insulin producing cells are destroyed by the autoimmune reaction of the body. This disease was also known as “juvenile diabetes”. It is commonly found in children as well as young adults. However, it is found in 5%-10% of people with diabetes (Williams & Hopper, 2010).
Life-long insulin replacement is considered as the standard therapy to control acute symptoms of the disease, including hyperglycemia, polyuria, and polydipsia. Daily injections with pens, syringes, or insulin pumps are required for insulin replacement. There are different forms and schedules of insulin that can help the patient of diabetes in different ways. These include “rapid-acting”, “short-acting” that is also known as “Regular”, “intermediate-acting”, and “long-acting” insulin preparations. Rapid-acting insulin starts working in 15 minutes showing peak actions in 30-90 minutes. Short-acting insulin starts working in 30-60 minutes and shows peak actions in 2-3 hours. Intermediate-acting insulin starts working in 2 to 4 hours and shows peak actions in 6-10 hours. Long-acting insulin shows sustained action for up to 24 hours. It is usually administered around bedtime, and may start working in 1-2 hours (Bonneville, 2012). Presently, most commonly used insulins are biosynthetic products and prepared with the help of genetic recombination techniques.
Healthy diet and proper eating plan along with regular exercise and monitoring of blood glucose levels are important in management of type 1 diabetes. Healthy foods and constant level of activity can also help in maintaining body weight. Management of blood glucose level needs matching the amount of insulin to the carbohydrate, fat, and protein levels in the food. Caloric distribution is an important part of dietary plan and a comprehensive diet plan includes the prescribed daily caloric intake. Usually, 20%-30% of daily calories are recommended for breakfast, 30% for dinner, and about 15% for the night time or late-evening snack. Fat intake should include about 30% of the total calories. Normally, 0.8 g/kg/day of protein is minimally required for good nutrition (Elzouki et al., 2012). Reducing the consumption of sugar and increasing fiber intake are also important to manage glucose levels. Changing the lifestyle such as joining a charity or taking up a new hobby can help in controlling the psychological stress that may have a negative effect on the life of diabetes patients.
Proper management of diabetes mean keeping the blood glucose at the normal level, i.e. between 4-6 mmol per liter (in fasting condition). Careful monitoring of blood glucose level is important and it can be done with the help of glucose meters. Careful monitoring is a vital part of glucose level management as treatment with insulin can also result in hypoglycemia, i.e. less than 3.9 mmol per liter of blood glucose level, or hyperglycemia.
Controlling glucose levels in the body is helpful in preventing many short-term and long-term complications. Complications of diabetes may include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, problems of the nervous system including peripheral neuropathy that can result in pain and/or reduced feeling in the extremities, and problems of the cardiovascular system including heart problems. Cardiovascular disease is one of the main causes of death in people with type 1 diabetes. If this disease is left untreated, it can also result in coma, usually from ketoacidosis, which can be dangerous for the patient.
Bonneville, T. (2012). Vectoring Diabetic Glucose: For Type 1 Diabetics: Xlibris Corporation.
Elzouki, A. Y., Harfi, H. A., Stapleton, F. B., Oh, W., Nazer, H., & Whitley, R. J. (2012). Textbook of Clinical Pediatrics: Springer.
Williams, L. S., & Hopper, P. D. (2010). Understanding Medical Surgical Nursing: F.A. Davis.
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