Good Essay About Applied Aesthetics And Interior Design
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One of the most important elements of the interior is the color scheme of the premises - the color of the walls, floors, trim them different materials (plastic, ceramic, drywall, etc.). The color of the interior is created using the principles of contrast and nuance. In practice, there are used both receptions. Color is an active means of interior architecture. A combination of brightness and color form the plastic interior, as well as its spatial composition. An important element of the interior is light and lighting. Artificial lighting in the rooms Hotel serves utilitarian and aesthetic functions. Utilitarian function is defined hygiene standards; ensure the normal human visual performance. Aesthetic function is defined architectural and artistic requirements. Artificial light reveals and emphasizes the interior space and tectonic system, the scale of the interior, ensures the unity of stylistic solutions Forms lamps and light distribution.
We can say that the practical aesthetics almost all of its existence is in the hidden, implicit form. From time to time, thinkers, philosophers, art historians, artists, sculptors, architects turned to the development and theoretical description of some of its principles relating to the application of techniques in the field of architecture, arts and crafts, painting and so on. Just today, practical aesthetics, as well as its application scope, become exposed to complex theoretical understanding:
Practical Aesthetics is a specific area of knowledge, aimed at creating a harmonious environment of the subject of human activity. Applied Aesthetics is a complex aesthetic methods and approaches to ensure the integrity of understanding of cultural phenomena.
For comparison, we give two definitions: Some researchers attribute to the field of practical aesthetics an aesthetics of everyday life, human behavior, scientific creativity, sports and other activities, excluding the actual artistic creativity. Other highlights in the problem field of aesthetics several levels, among which the aesthetics of reality, aesthetics of art, theoretical and informative aesthetics, receptive aesthetics, technical (industrial) aesthetics and practical aesthetics.
Practical Aesthetics is aimed at organizing the living space man on the principles of beauty, harmony and order, connecting with the aesthetic and utilitarian functions organized environment. This study expands the horizons of aesthetic interpretation of reality, considering the aesthetic sense as the basis of the value orientation of people in the world and powerful tool for the organization of its activities. Aesthetic perception focuses on the evaluation forms and knowledge through this prism inner essence of the object structured, harmonious and orderly phenomena of the external world. Despite the fact that the aesthetic contemplation is always associated with the non-use of this process, all that is available at all perception may be subject to aesthetic judgment. Thus, the evaluation of any phenomena and processes related not only to their functionality, but with their imaginative and emotional characteristics of a sensual color, as well as with the assessment of the practicality, feasibility and consistency of the ratio of their ideas and forms of embodiment. Forms of cultural reality (embodied, for example, in the figures of rhythmic gymnastics, rhetorical turns, style interior, architectural or floral compositions and so forth.), Created under the laws of beauty and harmony, gain integrity and completeness, making them easier to read, receive adequate and transcription embedded in the structure of the individual perception of the world.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the features of the aesthetics of the interior. To implement this goal it is necessary to solve the following problems: Reveal the essence of the concept interior, consider the color as a means of aesthetic expression of the interior and analyze the light as a means of aesthetic expression of the interior (Griffero, T., 2014).
What is Interior?
Interior is competent composition is a means to an expressive interior. Material objectivity architectural environment provides for the active process (Wednesday action) and at the same time create an emotional and aesthetic equivalent of the process as a reflection of his spiritual nature and social significance (Wednesday perception). Architectural form of the medium, the loss or change the functionality of the content, yet continues to exist, it continues to maintain its individual aesthetic content. Thus, a feature of architectural form as an artistic category is the presence of values, maintaining emotional and aesthetic expression mainly due to the image-content organization retains its universal meaning in the historical extent. This fact testifies to the stable conditions of formation of aesthetic in architecture, the presence of specific components and the laws governing their interaction. In turn, it becomes possible for the analytical study to highlight these components to consider their qualitative characteristics and to determine the basic tools and techniques of composite interaction in the formation of architectural form. Category of architectural form should be understood in a broad sense as a material reality, having the sum of the specific terms involved in the creation of artistic unity. Conditional division of architectural form on components is partly supported by the actual facts. Professional way of working on a way from general to specific uses temporal differentiation of the components of the first space-formal representations to the detail of pieces and components. In addition, often in the process of reconstruction work includes the component name of architectural space (alteration fences, equipment replacement). The first component - the spatial form of a shell (space group rooms, courtyard, street, square, etc.) - there is a kind of framing the environment and its main architectural expression. Form-shell defines the boundaries of interior space, single or composite, captures the major forms agreed with constructive structure. Form-shell determines the characteristic qualities of limited space - the absolute value, the division into sections, geometric view, static or dynamic, the degree of isolation and the distribution of light. The second component is a fence - can be represented as conditional decomposition of solid-shaped shell of a number of major surfaces and supports (Bohme, G.).
Enclosing elements structurally and functionally defined: walls, columns, partitions, ceilings, floors, galleries, balconies, stairs, etc. Fence defines the character limit and connections with adjacent spaces, both internal and external. Plane fencing its shape, material and color of plastic processing give individually-shaped interior features.
The third component - the substantive content (equipment and furniture) - describes the functional-typological content protection. Substantive content determines the zonal division of space, creates conditions comfortable activity. The shape, material, categories help to identify image-typological features of the interior.
Too narrow understanding of practical aesthetics as a method of anesthetization for environment of human habitation - at home, at work, in the office - entails the transfer characteristics of interior design for the whole aesthetics in general. Today, it is the value of such an application is justified and aesthetics demand and popularity of programs and benefits, "guaranteeing" the consumer a great result, bordered by deliberate visualization purposes. Nevertheless, the desire of man is really any way to improve their lives, work and build relationships with the environment well - so they brought him satisfaction and success, it is only natural. Practical Aesthetics analysts suggest human living space as an aesthetic object, identifying the role of beauty, harmony and order in the process of perception and human exploration of the environment in the process of constructing the personality of a holistic view of the world. But as living space is not limited to the characteristics of the environment, as well as practical aesthetics is not closed to environmental design, and is a process of inclusion of the individual in the world, which is perceived as a space of action. Practical Aesthetics offers the development of this activity: "the position of the person in the living space is defined by its ideas about what a certain range of values he has." In this context, practical aesthetics is an organic supplement theoretical aesthetics, identifying and implementing its principles in real life, offering specific methods of organization of living space. Living space built under the influence of certain values that guide a person in the choice of style and lifestyle, goals and ways to achieve them, and the ratio of this values-orientation in different people, social groups and representatives of different cultural traditions can be polar with respect to each other. Man builds and improves their living space in accordance with the ideas and cultural traditions, obtained in the process of education and training. Guidelines for such a design are not only the taste, as a selection criterion, but also a system of values - material, social, cultural, to which we aspire, and which protects.
Here is a short overview of the main types (styles) interiors (Edwards, C., 2005).
Eclectic interiors, by definition, are multi-component. When mixed close to each other historic styles, such as classicism and Empire, Baroque and Art Nouveau, a composition where things are harmoniously combined in the interior, not contradicting each other. But sometimes a mixture of styles is in the nature of risky experiment where the elements characteristic of different directions, deliberately contrasted, as if facing each other. Changing the interior, people tend to keep the old favorite things, and involuntarily "Enter" in the image of the new space objects, at first glance quite appropriate style. But for an experienced designer there are no unsolvable problems: small changes designed - and now take their favorite things special place, and it turns out that created a very eclectic so harmonious. The interior of the house is built on contradictions, but its main feature is becoming convenience and comfort as well as style is very eclectic utilitarian. This image combines "historical turn" and modern style. The house can coexist most diverse works of painting, paintings by old masters to gifts for friends and even their own "works of art" created by the hands of their masters, or children. Emphasized modern furniture is adjacent to the old chest of drawers, survived several eras and even a few attempts at restoration and transformation. In a situation where mixed stylistically different objects, it is important to focus on the details, because it is the details combine such different objects in nature.
In practice, the concept of a classical interior design can have two meanings. A classic style like “Classicism” is based on the ancient heritage and architecture of ancient Rome. This is so-called historical interpretation of the classical style. The second version of the classic combines several areas - Baroque, Classicism itself, Rococo, Empire and others. Such a collective definition of «classics» was in demand by professional designers for a number of reasons. Firstly, these areas, rather stark contrast to the architectural solutions, have much in common in the decoration. They are distinguished by simplicity, natural forms and adherence to the principle of proportionality. The "English classics" with its solemnity, massive and heavy make better use of spacious apartments with high ceilings, a "classical" Greco-Roman tends to be naturally proportional forms and can be a good solution for almost any apartment. Second, in a modern design are rarely used "historically pure" interiors. While the light from the eclectic decor elements that are close to "sound" and figurative series, became a phenomenon so common that formed in a holistic direction. The interior is decorated in classic style - this is usually a room of regular shape, radiating peace and solidity. This interior is not excessive, not overloaded with items, not "a slap in the face", full of restrained dignity, taste and respectability. "Classic" is bought for a long time and is inherited. We have high quality classic furniture feature: as talented painting, this furniture over time increases in the price of becoming a rarity. After all, as a rule, natural wood furniture: walnut, cherry, birch wood.
Full domination of the classical style (actually classicism) can be seen in the interiors of palaces of the French nobility. Everything was strictly defined, clear and straight lines, right symmetrical shapes ranging from pillars, window frames, furniture and ending with the strict geometric forms trimmed bushes in the garden. French classicism adding a little luxury and gilding, finish typing the military symbols: flags, helmets, swords in the bas-reliefs, and stucco carving, gilding brush-like general's epaulettes, created during the Napoleonic Empire style. English classic style is based architect, who lived a long time in Italy. In addition to the common features inherent in this style English classics is somewhat dry. Reserved, cold forms correspond to a measured way of life of the English aristocracy. The peculiarity of the English classical interior is the presence of the hall - the front lobby, as well as ceiling decoration not only moldings, but also painting - bubble.
A modern classic
In modern performance classic style - it is restrained, smooth surface of the walls, often covered with a cloth, as it emits light, and the furniture of precious wood - the warmth and dignity. As a rule, interior in classical style created to order. That is why created manually in classical proportions thing, whether furniture, lamps and dishes does not lose its beauty and popularity with time maintaining its appeal and value. In the classical setting, it is usually a lot of mirrors that extend the room and give it a lightness and shine. Columns with bronze capitals very organically complement the interior, marble fireplaces. The total range of colors - white furniture, combined with gold and pastel colors of the upholstery and walls, or also a very popular option, furniture colors of natural precious wood with a bronze finish and blue-green or pastel shades in the upholstery textiles, curtains. Specially designed for new textile technology that preserves all the decorative properties inherent in classical models, has a large color palette and high strength. A variety of fabrics: silk, satin, cotton, rayon, brocade, plain or with classical patterns, combine well with sophisticated forms of upholstered furniture and natural wood color. Curtains and draperies windows complex graceful shape with noble folds and drapery, decorate windows and interior as a whole. The decoration used a brush or similar in tone and texture of the fabric. Modern architects and designers create new high-tech interiors, in which the basic features of the classical style, organically combined with new forms and materials. The natural color of precious wood, the traditional classics, combined in these interiors with the brilliance of glass and metal in its modern elements. The space of the house or apartment feels like a complete surprise, not only because of the repetition of classical forms and a single color, but also precisely chosen natural materials. Here are organically combined light walls, matt gleam of African wood flooring, glass table tops, mirrors in gilt frames and thin pastel-colored silk curtains. This is also a classic, its modernized version. Indeed, in these interiors are preserved the main features of the classical style: the nobility and restraint, harmony and good taste. In all their diversity, graceful and somewhat ceremonial classic interiors do not look like museum exhibits, and are proof of the high social status of the owner of the house, its respectability and solvency.
Light as a Means of Aesthetic Expression in Interior Design
The lighting of hotel premises are classified according to the functions performed in this room: lighting of residential, public and administrative buildings. If the lighting of premises is defined as hygiene standards, and decorative requirements, the lighting of public spaces is determined by the architectural and artistic requirements, and administrative - just utilitarian (Striner, R, 1990).
The level of ambient light determines the comfort, which depends on the light reception.
Modern principles of artificial lighting devices depend on the three-dimensional solution space and its functions. Function space affects the choice of receiving coverage, which determines the types of light sources and luminaries and their light distribution and location, and decorative lighting system. In the hotel room can be used both general and local lighting systems. General lighting is lighting the entire room is as a whole. It can be uniform (the same) for all parts of the premises or localized (gain) on any one part of it and is a must for all rooms of the hotel. Local lighting is used to illuminate work surfaces. This coverage is used in residential and administrative areas of the hotel, and can also be used as an extra in the sales rooms of premises catering. In the same room is possible the simultaneous use of general and local lighting, in this case, the lighting system is called combination. Performing a utilitarian purpose, artificial lighting is involved simultaneously in the overall composition of the interior. Lighting affects the visual assessment of the interior - the perception of its spatial and planning solutions. The role of light as an artistic tool is especially great in the interior architecture as a complex set of what are public premises hotel. Crucial to the artistic and psychological evaluation of artificial lighting are the following factors: the rooms with light saturation, brightness surface and its distribution. Various embodiments of the light intensity distribution of brightness and give the room an individual character, so that the same interior can be perceived in different lighting systems in different ways. When choosing a system of artificial lighting must take into account characteristics of the premises. Features of public premises hotel are:
unity vestibule space group of premises;
the division of a single space into separate areas and zones;
different character areas: front - the lobby, intimate
halls, official - office decoration and so on;
clarity orientation coming.
Rational from the point of view of lighting techniques and methods of illumination (localized, combined and integrated) allow the use of lights of different shapes, designs and light distribution. Lamps are divided in their artistic features into three main groups:
1) Lamps of neutral form are a composite element of furniture with which they are associated functionally. Often lamps are connected with furniture and constructively.
2) Decorative lamps, which can play a significant role in the architectural design of the interior. For decorative lamps include floor lamps, table and wall lamps, pendants with decorative lenses and shade.
3) Built-in lights reflected and scattered light, which allow to solve various problems of the interior of the visual change in size and proportions of the room or enhance the artistic sound of a decorative element, and so on.
The choice of the lamp depends on the total interior solutions. For example, a floor lamp with a decorative shade along with the room illumination highlights the recreation area as the center of the composition of the interior and gives the rooms a view of the living room. Instead of a floor lamp in the room can be built-in reflected light from the ceiling, acting simultaneously illuminating the rest. The rooms at the same time it is advisable to use lights of different groups: decorative, lamps neutral form and embedded devices reflected and scattered light. Lighting, combining the functions of general and local lighting should be used as the main element of a composite unit interior. Important role in the design of buildings and residential numbers game works of painting, sculpture, decorative items, arts and crafts and especially gardening (Stanley, M, 2004).
In this paper the following problems were solved: reveals the essence of the concept of interior light is analyzed as a means of aesthetic expression of the interior. The design uses a large range of materials, different color and texture of the surface. Therefore, in dealing with interior materials should be selected taking into account the "gravity" and "ease" of their color.
Impression of the interior is composed not only of individual colors, but also on their combinations. Various combinations of colors have different effects on the audience: some are seen easily, while others evoke a sense of tension and gravity. In creating the interior lighting is not important in itself, and its interaction with other elements of the interior. In this regard, it should be noted the effect of light on the perception of color interior solutions. When selecting furniture for the design office, except aesthetic standards - for example, consistency in the same style, in harmony with the interior space, it is necessary to match the physiological requirements: its dimensions must ensure ease of performing the work, comply with anthropological and physiological characteristics of the person, to promote comfortable position at work, be rationally organized. Compliance with these requirements will eventually lead not only to the creation of the beautiful interior of office, but also facilitate the work of employees, which, of course, will affect positively on their performance, improve staff morale and attitude towards visitors.
Griffero, T. (2014). Atmospheres. Aesthetics of emotional spaces. Reprint. Aldershot, Hamps.: Ashgate Publishing.
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Edwards, C. (2005). Turning Houses Into Homes: A History of the Retailing and Consumption of Domestic Furnishings. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Retrieved 2013-02-07.
Striner, R. (1990). Art Deco: Polemics and Synthesis. WInterthur portfolio, Vol 25. No. 1 spring, 1990. PP. 26-34.
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