Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Water, Colony, Soil, Farming, Farmer, Region, History, Mountains

Pages: 2

Words: 550

Published: 2020/11/08

Mesopotamia had a hospitable climate and fertile soil. The fertile climate was contributed to the fact that the northern area of Mesopotamia is made up of plains and hills. There are also rivers and streams that flow from the mountains and frequent seasonal rains that keep the soil wet for farming (Butler, 2012). This factor attracted humans who moved from being hunters and gathers to become farmers more quickly. Within a short time, they were able to raise animals and to grow crops thus settling in one place. The emergence farming in that area increased its population density, which consequently led to the beginning of civilization (Herrendorf, Schmitz, Jr., & Teixeira, 2012). Increased population gave to emergence of trade, hence the growth of urbanization in the regions that people met to exchange their farming products (Riehl, 2008). This fertile terrain also provided early settlers in the area with timber, stones, and metals from the nearby mountain.
B. Diffusion refers to the movement of ideas, culture, practices, and other things from one community to another. Early human societies used to borrow from each other using different interaction methods (Moffett, 2013). Since it was the beginning of civilization, newly-discovered ideas, methods, practices and processes spread from their origin to other places through the process diffusion. These practices included new plants and animals, new methods of farming, cultural practices among others. In around 1790, the Coast Salish people used to practice fishing and hunting without any form of cultivation (Smith, 2011). However, about fifty years later, this people began cultivating potatoes using digging sticks. Their interaction with traders, travelers, and Indian women led to the diffusion of potatoes. The pacific fur company began to plant potatoes in the area in 1811. It first planted about twelve potatoes and harvested approximately 50 bushels of them. This gave it morale to continue cultivating them and passing them over to the natives and other settlers through trade and other form of interactions.
One of the geographical or physical factors that led to the emergence and development of the United States is the major rivers especially in the Midwest regions. These rivers include Ohio, Mississippi, and Illinois among other major rivers. For example, Mississippi river provided a fertile delta for farming since early times and provided food to natives who were living in its banks. The early settlers also used to transport their produce to the market using boats in the river Mississippi (Isachenko, 2011). All the major rivers in the Midwest region played an important role in the economic development of that area.
The second geographical factor is the Cumberland Gap discovery and the Appalachian Mountains. It was very difficult for the earlier colonialists to cross over the Appalachian Mountains due to brutal and harsh surroundings. There were no roads or paths, which passed through those mountains since there were many alternating valleys and ridgelines. The early settlers were forced to migrate westward in order to reach the other side of the mountains. At first, the settlers only developed the eastern region since they considered the western region as unreachable and hostile (Sayre, 2013). However, with the discovery of the Cumberland Gap, settlers were able to cross to the western region with ease (Betts, 2002). This led to the development of the western region and to a large extent the expansion of the United States.


Betts, D.(2002). Through the Cumberland Gap. (Essay). In: Southern Cultures, 8(1), 8.
Butler, A.(2012). The wonders of Ancient Mesopotamia. Interaction, 40(3), 17-20.
Herrendorf, B., Schmitz, Jr., J. A., & Teixeira, A.(2012). The role of transportation in U.S. economic development: 1840-1860. International Economic Review, 53(3), 693-716.
Isachenko, A.(2011). Geographical roots of ancient civilizations (on the 120th anniversary of L.I. Mechnikov's Civilization and Great Historical Rivers). Regional Research of Russia, 1(1), 91-98.
Moffett, M.(2013). Human Identity and the Evolution of Societies. Human Nature, 24(3), 219-267.
Riehl, S.(2008). Climate and agriculture in the ancient Near East: a synthesis of the archaeobotanical and stable carbon isotope evidence. Vegetation History & Archaeobotany, 17, 43-51.
Sayre, G.(2013). How to succeed in exploration without really discovering anything: four French travelers in colonial Louisiana, 1714–63. Atlantic Studies, 10(1), 51-68,
Smith, A. F.(2011). Potato : a global history. London : Reaktion Books.

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