Good Example Of Argumentative Essay On Animal Testing
Animal testing is an intense contentious topic that has created a division among people; there are those in support and those who are against it. Animal testing, also identified as animal experimentation is when non-human animals are used in conducting experiments, especially in the field of medicine. There are a number of unending debates on whether animal testing should continue or not, as some groups squabble that, it is an unethical process while others argue that it is ethical since it has large benefits on the health of humans. In addition, there is another group that advocates for the use of alternatives, instead of live animals during experiments. Although animal testing is well thought-out as an inhumane and an unethical practice, it is crucial in scientific development and is a main contributor to human’s health in the world today. Besides, it is a vital element in modern science, since most significant medical research developments depends on animal experimentation.
Animal testing is dated back from the 3rd to 4th centuries BCE and the foremost animal testing was done by Aristotle and Erasistratus. It was first initiated in the 12th century by Avenzoar, who was an Arabic physician. Avenzoar introduced a trial method that was used to test surgical procedures on non-human animals, before trying the same procedures on humans. Since then, non-human animals are being used more frequently for trial testing in biomedical research. According to "Research Animals, "animals are experimented on so as to find out how their bodies react and work for further studies (Hopes). Most animal are similar to human beings in many ways, and they can help to advance the scientific development of human health. Therefore, the procedure of animal testing is being encouraged worldwide so as to advance in the medical field.
Animal testing has increased throughout the history of biomedical research. In the world today, around 128 millions of animals are being used in animal experimentation. Nonetheless, it is intricate to get an accurate figure of animal experiments, since many animals are being experimented on worldwide. According to the MacClellan, millions of animals are experimented on worldwide (MacClellan 6). For instance, animals used in testing include; include guinea pigs, rats, hamsters, birds frogs, cats, mice, monkeys, fish, dogs, and rabbits. Most of these experiments are done by biology students, students in medical training, and experiments done on cosmetics, drugs, food, and other chemicals. Animal testing is a worldwide experiment that is being embraced in the medical field for the future of medicine.
Animal testing is a vital scientific development, and is a main contributor to human’s health today. It plays an important role in the development of medicine; and it ensures the safety of drugs as well as improving our health. Animals have genetic similarities to human beings, therefore, they are vulnerable to same health problems faced by humans, and using them for experimentation makes research about these dilemmas probable. Consequently, animal testing is vital because, it assists in the advancement of medical knowledge and research. Proponents argue that, animal testing is vital in the world today because without it, there will be no medicine in the future. Most treatments for cancer, and other vaccines that are used to prevent several diseases and viruses were done on animals first before they were administered on humans. In addition, proponents of animal experimentation argue that, animal testing is important because, if encouraged, it will help in ensuring the safety of products that are being manufactured for human use, since they are first tried on animals. Some drugs and cosmetics can be harmful for human use, but through animal testing, researchers re able to determine whether they are fit for human use.
Animal testing is a crucial procedure to science development and in human health because it has helped improved our health as well as preventing disease for humans and animals. Animals are used to test potential future medicine for human use, therefore, this procedure positively adds to medical research (Hempworth). With the use of animals, researchers are able to use them for tests and come up with Life-changing vaccines that have helped millions of people worldwide. Through animal testing, the death rate of patients will reduce because; researchers have come up with a solution on how to deal with faulty genes both in humans and animals. For instance, the tamoxifen drug which is a drug used for breast cancer was developed through animal testing. This proves that, through animals testing, possible cures for various diseases can be found and help in curing humans.
On the other hand, even though animal testing has been considered as an important scientific development, there are a number of ethical concerns and negativities on this subject. First of all, animal testing cases pain and suffering to the live animals used in experiments. Before the testing, the animals are locked up in cages as they languish in pain since they are not allowed to move freely for they are stuck together. In addition, as they wait for the terrifying and painful process to be performed on them, they are forced to inhale lethal fumes as holes are drilled in their skulls. It should be noted that, animals have sentient as human beings, and for this reason, they should be treated as so because they experience pain too, just like humans do (MacClellan6). Moreover, they are living things, meaning they eat, drink, and breathe, and therefore, they deserve to be treated as living things instead of putting them into so much pain in the name of medical research. If human beings deem it wrong to inflict pain on their fellow human beings unreasonably, why should the same be applied to animals, given that they are sentient just like human beings and all living animals deserve to be treated equally.
In addition, even though animal testing has been said to be a beneficial scientific development to the human health, its advantage to human beings has not yet been fully established. It should be noted that, animals are metabolically, physiologically, and anatomically unlike from human beings, hence, the tests working on animals can surely prove to be unsuccessful in human beings (Animal Experimentation). Animals react very differently compared to human beings, and therefore, tests done on animals can be hazardous when done on human beings. In addition, even if humans and animals share a number of biological traits, they have biological differences and this is enough reason to question the data obtained from animal experiments and is to be used on humans. It is wrong to subject animals to cruel procedures in the name of promoting the future human health and this denies them a normal life, yet they are at liberty to it, and there is no prove that these tests can work well on human beings. For example, guinea pigs are used in animal experimentation, yet a guinea pig and a human being react very differently to some drugs, for instance, penicillin is toxic to a guinea pig, and a cure to human beings. This proves that, any test done on a guinea pig will automatically be unsafe for human beings because of their different reactions on certain drugs. Another example is that, drugs that are effective on dogs, or other animals can fail to be effective on human beings. Therefore, it is important to note that, animal testing has its negative side since animals and humans react very differently to substances and as a result, it should be stopped. Animal testing should be declared unethical because it can have negative effect both on the animals and human beings who are to use the trial substances used on animals. Alternative ways of testing should be encouraged so as to get precise because it will end up causing more harm than good on human beings.
There are several alternatives to animal testing that can be used instead of using live animals. For instance, the two major alternatives are, and in vitro cell culture and in silico computer simulation. Even though the two can replace the use of animals, a number of people argue that, they are not the best options because, cell cultures still come from live animals while simulations are known to use data from previous animal testing experiments. In addition, there is an argument that, the above alternatives are unlikely to provide sufficient data that is needed in the experiments, and therefore, they cannot replace animal testing.
Animal testing is a crucial advancement in the medical field. Through this procedure, medical researchers are able to find medicine for various illnesses. In addition, they are able to test other products if there are suitable for human use, for instance, cosmetics (Animal Testing ProCon.org). Animal testing should be encouraged because it will help in the achievement of medical and scientific goals as long as the animal pain on the animals during the process is minimized.
In conclusion, animal testing has remained a contentious topic around the world. It is an important topic because; this procedure has helped in scientific advancement in medical research. In addition, it animal testing is vital because it helps medical researchers come up with the best cures for diseases, for instance cancer. Moreover, through animal testing, researchers have come up with potential cures for terminal diseases, injuries, and even allergies. As a result, animal testing is an important aspect in the field of medicine. Even though there is a minority view that in an unethical and an inhumane act, this procedure should be encouraged worldwide so as achieve of medical and scientific goals in the future. In essence, animal testing is an important procedure to science development and human health, hence it should be encouraged. Researchers should find more ethical ways in animal testing so as to be able to secure future medical advances, since animal testing brings progress in the medical field.
"Animal Experimentation." Current Issues: Macmillan Social Science Library. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 26 Feb. 2015.
"Animal Testing ProCon.org." ProCon.org. 29 Jan. 2014. Web. 2 Mar. 2015.
Hempworth, Adam. "Animal Research: The Ethics of Animal Experimentation." HOPES.N. p., 6 July 2010. Web. 2 Mar. 2015.
MacClellan, Joel P. "Animal Testing." Policy and Activism. Ed. Craig W. Allin. Ipswich, MA: Salem Press, 2011. 5-7. Encyclopedia of Environmental Issues. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 2 Mar. 2015.
"Research Animals."Animal Rights. Kim Masters Evans. 2011 ed. Detroit: Gale, 2011. Information plus Reference Series. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 2 Mar. 2015.
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