Good Example Of Article Review On Major Depression
Major depressive disorder - also known as clinical depression - is a mental disorder characterized by prolonged depressed mood and accompanied by a number of symptoms that interfere with normal human life. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (“Depression”, n.d.), at about 6.7% of US adults annually recorded cases of MDD. Women particularly are 70% more at higher risk of getting the disease.
Currently, there are several opinions about the causes of Major Depression. Firstly, hereditary genetic factors predispose to depression and reduced stress resistances. According to Christopher L. Heffner (2014, n.p.), “first degree relatives of people with depression have a higher incidence of the illness”. Secondly, children affected by the fierce or violent parenting style get used to depressive reactions. Intensive, repetitive stress situations, trauma or loss of someone of something significant may also trigger the symptoms of the clinical depression.
Joseph Goldberg (2014) states that healthy lifestyle, such as diet, balanced daily routine, physical exercises and good sleep increase the chances of prevention the illness.
According to the National Institute of Mental Health (“Depression”, n.d.), the main symptoms of Major Depression can be grouped the following way:
- Lack of motivation (low interest to the various activities, problems with making decisions, distractible attention).
- Metabolic problems (loss of appetite, sudden weight loss, sleep disturbances, fatigue).
- Problems of self-perception (low self-esteem, the idea of being guilty, self-deprecation, helplessness, feeling insignificant, suicidal thoughts, self-doubt).
- Mood disorders - feeling depressed most of the time, pessimism.
Even though the majority of people face these symptoms from time to time, we can assume the fact of clinical depression if they last more than two weeks.
An individual with the listed symptoms should ask for medical help immediately. If not, it may cause serious problems such as psychosomatic disorders and sleep disturbances (insomnia or frequent desire to sleep). As well, it can result in a development of drug or alcohol addiction, suicidal thoughts and actions (Goldberg, 2013).
Major Depressive Disorder is diagnosed by qualified mental health experts through interviewing, according to the criteria listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - DSM-5. In 2014, the researchers from the Northwestern University of Chicago created the test to diagnose clinical depression based on nine levels of RNA biomarkers in the blood (Redei et al., 2014).
According to the American Psychiatric Association (“Depression”, n.d.), the most common treatments for MDD include antidepressants, psychotherapy, and electroconvulsive therapy (in cases when the patient is resistant to other medications). The most effective talk therapy for clinical depression is cognitive-behavioral or interpersonal psychotherapy.
In the test were involved 32 patients from Northwestern General Internal Medicine clinics aged from 21 to 79 years, who had previously been diagnosed with clinical depression by the usual method, and 32 not depressed control participants "matched by age, race and sex" (Redei et al., 2014, p. 2).
At the beginning of the study, all the participants have been measured the levels of biomarkers in the blood. The results of those suffering from MDD and of the control group are significantly different. Then, patients underwent the 18-week course of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Upon its completion, due to levels changes of biomarkers, it was possible to separate the patients who responded positively to treatment from those for whom therapy has had little influence.
As a result, this test allows to predict, whether the condition of patients improves in response to the therapy, according to the specific combination of biomarkers in blood. Another advantage is the ability to detect individual predisposition to another depression episode after the patient achieves remission. Detected by a blood test, the high risk of relapse shows a need for closer monitoring of the patient's condition and "can be used to survey treatment efficacy" (Redei et al., 2014, p. 4).
The research of E. Redei is simple and valid enough so that anyone can easily get the test for depression which will provide “a scientific diagnosis in the same way someone is diagnosed with high blood pressure or high cholesterol” (as cited in Paul, 2014, n.p.).
American Psychiatric Association (n.d.). Depression. Retrieved March 4, 2015, from http://www.psychiatry.org/mental-health/depression
Goldberg, J. (Ed.). (2014, April 11). Depression Prevention Tips and Strategies. Retrieved March 4, 2015, from http://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/understanding-depression-prevention
Goldberg, J. (Ed.) (2013, May 4). Side Effects of Untreated Depression. Retrieved March 4, 2015, from http://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/untreated-depression-effects?page=2
Heffner, C. (2014, August 20). Major Depressive Disorder (Unipolar Depression). Retrieved March 4, 2015, from http://allpsych.com/disorders/mood/majordepression/
National Institute of Mental Health (n.d.). Depression. Retrieved March 3, 2015, from
Paul, M. (2014, September 16). Blood Test to Diagnose Depression in Adults. Retrieved March 5, 2015, from http://www.northwestern.edu/newscenter/stories/2014/09/blood-test-to-diagnose-depression-in-adults.html
Redei, E., Andrus, B., Kwasny, M., Seok, J., Cai, X., Ho, J., & Mohr, D. (2014, September 16). Blood transcriptomic biomarkers in adult primary care patients with major depressive disorder undergoing cognitive behavioral therapy. Translational Psychiatry. 4(9), 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038%2Ftp.2014.66