Good Example Of Bio108 Report
Methods for Propagation of Faster Seed Germination in Common Arizona Plants
Germination is the process where a seed grows into a plant. Within plants there are many different ways that germination can happen. Most commonly is the sprouting of a seed of angiosperm. These processes might have variations within different plant species. This lab will explore two different plant species: Common Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) and the Arizona sophora (Sophora arizonnica) and understand the process of germination in each.
Buttonbush is grows as a flowering plant in eastern and southern North America specifically it is in Arizona. The plant grows as a shrub with a leaf composition that is the opposite of whorled simple composition with an arrangement of leaves in a Pinnately compound formation leaves. The green stem leads down to the roots which are usually present with a lot of water at its base. Flowers are white and they are in a ball shaped cluster.
The Buttonbush grows particularly it grows in places with wetlands like swamps and moist forests in thickets that have intermittent flooding. The seeds and flowers provide food for different birds, insects like butterflies and deer. Interestingly, this flowering plant is in the coffee family and like its famous counterpart it also has known medicinal uses for humans. In addition it has possible commercial uses from their production of saponins. The objective was to observe whether soaking has an affect on germination in Buttonbush.
Arizona sophora is a also native only to Arizona particularly it grows in places near wetlands. This plant is a small tree or shrub belonging to the pea family. It has pinnately compounded leaves which alternate. It has a green stem and taproots. Flowers are bluish purple with clawed petals. Arizona sophora also fruit which consists of a several seeded thick pod where it provides food for birds species. A relative of this Sophora tomentosa is used in Arica to make fish poisons, and insect repellents. The objective of this study is to identify if soaking and nicking the seed of the Arizona sophora, will increase germination.
There are many treatment options that have been used for other types of plants. Soaking the seeds in cold, warm or boiling water prior to planting can rehydrate, soften and take off critical material like cuticles from the pod which promotes seed growth. Scarification can also be performed with acid or by physical means which also smooths and softens also the seed. Lastly dry heat or using a microwave might increase germination growth Although there are a lot of techniques, not all seeds are the same and each plant species may have profound differences.
Both of these plants can have medicinal or economic purposes that can be exploited. Within this experiment we are using different methods to increase the germination to learn if we can grow these faster in a controlled manner. Hypothesis: Human intervention can increase the increase the rate to germinate seeds and decrease the time of germination in common Arizona plants.
II. Materials and Methods
All materials were provided to us by the by the laboratory. Buttonbush and Arizona sophora were obtained from habitats within Arizona. The following experiments were conducted to understand whether these treatments had an affect on each plant for the speed of germination. Treated seeds were then grown under the same conditions as non-treated seeds.
For the Arizona sophora 6 seeds were planted per treatment under the following treatment methods were used: boiling 24 hours (80 degrees F), scarification used clippers to nick the seed, and (nothing). For the Buttonbush 13 seeds were planted per treatment under the following treatment methods were used: soaking method and nothing (control).
Seeds were put into pots with one part potting soil with peat: 1 part perlite, at a depth of two times the diameter from the top. Pots were placed in a greenhouse 75-85 degrees F diurnal temperatures. An automatic mist sprayed plants for 5 min twice daily. Greenhouse was shaded with 50% shade cloth. Germination was measured weekly for all plants. Germination was measured using was if the cotalines of the 1st leaves are above the ground.
Additionally, manual scarification was done on three types of plants native to Arizona :Snake plant (Sansevieria trifasciata or Sansevieria zeylanica), Purple Heart (Tradescantia pallida) and Maternity Plant (Kalanchoe Tubiflora). For the purple heart we performed medial cutting. For the maternity the plants were taken off the bud and planted. Hormone was used on the Snake plant and the purple heart. For these plants we were measuring the rooting, and we looked at it every week. Determined that the cuttings were rooted by tugging on them and observing the resistance.
III. Results and Discussion
Different plants around the Arizona region were treated using a variety of different methods. To grow plants faster the rate limiting step is oftentimes germination. Within this laboratory we took several different types of plants found native within Arizona and treated them. Whether the seeds respond it depends on the character of the seed. The treatments, seeds and results are presented. We found that the treatment for Arizona sophora was best with the nicking method. This softened the core enough to get better germination.
However, although it was predicted that soaking would affect the plant the best treatment was the control for the Buttonbush. This experiment served as a good way to understand which treatments work and do not work. Further treatments like hormones could be developed in order to promote efficient seed germination.
Northington, David K. "Evidence bearing on the origin of infraspecific disjunction inSophora gypsophila (Fabaceae)." Plant Systematics and Evolution 125.4 (1976): 233-244.
Zhang, Zhizhen, Shiyou Li, and Shanmin Zhang. "Six new triterpenoid saponins from the root and stem bark of Cephalanthus occidentalis." Planta medica 71.4 (2005): 355-361.
Treatments to promote seed germinaton. FAO Corporate Document Repository. n.d. April 2, 2015