Good Example Of Literature Review On Media AND The National Development
In today’s world the information is the main thing that supports all the spheres in the human everyday life. Media plays an important role in the life of nation as the transmitter of information. This information may bring various changes in the society, improving the lives of people. The media is the informational bridge between the government and public, the way to communicate with people, entertain them, educate and tell about day-to-day news elsewhere. The communication is reached by the variety of the technique means. There are two conditions that may serve for better communication. First, the media must be really professional and objective, without personal assumptions, and it must be free and independent (Schramm, 1964).
The development of the nation may be reached by the variety of conditions; they are economic, political and informational. In the modern life, the information is the developer of the progress, we use in for business and for personal needs. In the 21st century the ways to transmit the information are different and they may bring the data as fast as someone can wink. That is why this topic is very urgent to be researched. There is no point on the planet where the techniques were not installed to transmit the information or just stay in touch. The speed of development of the local nation depends on the quality of the techniques that are used for the communication with the nation. If we compare some African country where the information supply is poor with some Asian country, we will see the difference in the levels. Global development of the media wire is working to be updated and functional all around the world to fulfil the requirements of people to get the news and information fast.
This research consists of the review on how the media can develop nation and what changes are possible. The matter is that media brings changes to the society and makes it develop.
Media and National Development
The value of the media in contemporary society cannot be overestimated. It is so firmly established in people’s everyday life that they even cannot imagine their existence without them. For them it is enough to watch the latest news on their favourite TV channel, to know the score of a football match on the sports site on the Internet, listen to the weather forecast for the day on the waves of a favourite FM radio. Began in the mid-20th century, the rapid development of information technology laid the foundation for the formation of an entirely new kind of society, the informational society (Douglass, 1971). The media occupies a special place the development of society. Its effects on humans begin at an early age and continues throughout life. In fact in today's world the media have made a considerable part of the functions on the formation of consciousness of people, raising their values, orientations, tastes, attitudes, habits and preferences. Man previously personally did not encounter this or that problem, thanks to the power of the media; he was able to meet the most diverse manifestations of social life and make them a definite idea and build them a certain attitude. XX century is rightly considered the century of automobiles, computers, nuclear energy, and space exploration. It is also true that the XX century is a century of radio and television. Despite the rapid development of communication at the beginning of the XXI century, television remains the most popular and accessible media.
Traditional media influence on public consciousness and behaviour of people, encouraging them to achieve a particular purpose. In periods of evolutionary development of the structure and functions of the media tend to contribute to the stable functioning of society as a whole (Schramm, 1964). However, in the transitional period of social development separate structures of other media gain pace of life, they may develop is co-existence with each other and society as a whole, which is manifested in the expression of ideas and interests, sometimes far removed from the needs of the public. All that we know about our society and even the world in which we live, we learn from the media. On the other hand, of the media themselves, we heard a lot of this, that we cannot trust this source. We resist their impact, knowing that we are being manipulated.
The fact that the media have a tremendous impact on the individual, and often completely, shape public opinion is an indisputable fact. Every day people get the news from the press and information that seventy percent cannot be verified. They definitely cannot always evaluate the trustworthiness and therefore should just take the news at face value, forming an opinion of what they saw or heard (Jika and Ali, 2002). That, unfortunately, is not always true. The younger generation forms its opinions and tastes almost one hundred percent due to the magazines, television and Internet entertainment; adults read a newspaper daily and consider watching television news. Very large percentage of the information is received and processed them in conversations with family; friends or colleagues are gradually beginning to consider their own opinions. The bottom line is the media and communications that shape almost eighty percent of the personal and public opinion.
Media is the core term of the means to deliver information to the public. In the general view it includes the collective means to transmit the news. Usually, it is classified as print media and electronic. The first ones are more traditional and include newspapers, journals, periodicals and magazines. The electronic ones are non-paper communicative means which are TV, radio and the Internet. They are also called press in general (Jika and Ali, 2002). The media brings the development and some positive changes. They say that the media brings us some food for thought and. Media has a power to take part in national events or even to be used as a political and strategic tool. With the development of the technologies information may be transmitted on the cosmic speed, cover each square inch of the planet; be delivered to almost every family on the Earth. The world becomes narrower thanks to the media. Apart for the informational and entertaining, media also may serve as the educator and the developer of the nation. The changes may happen in different spheres and it is evident, that media has a big impact on the individuals, but it is worth to research how the modern news transmitters can influence the nation (Jika and Ali, 2002). First, the press may be used to stress the national identity and to show the uniqueness of the country, especially in the situation when a country wants to claim its independence. This way was also the most popular in such a situation. The informational flows were used in a way to build the national identity. Press is often used in military campaigns as the essential strategic element. Second, the media can be used in the peaceful time to make the pride of the nation stronger by showing some achievements in different spheres of scientific, or culture life of the nation. The victories usually inspire and create the chauvinism; they make people believe that their nation is the best. It is also may be a voice of those who want to speak out, some majorities and minorities, that want to speak on the broad public. Moreover, they are good motivators from the side of the government that communicated with its nation (Cuthbert, 1977).
The information in modern society, as the analysis of the literature, is given a prominent place which it has neither the traditional nor in a modernizing world. The dynamics of growth of the volume of information is such that its number is doubling every 20 months. Developing society requires an intensification of information processes in the wide use of the media. Due to the increasing power of mass media, information reaches the consumer at high speed, replicated many times and has been engaged in the consciousness of the masses. The growth of information has created a new form of communication, which is characteristic of urbanized areas with large concentrations of people, a mass communication. Mass communication is understood as a process of production of the media and its further spread by direct communication or through the media on a numerically large and dispersed audience. Transmission is identical to information on large areas and the possibility of repeated and almost simultaneous playback allows adjusting the impact of the mass media, the tool of the mass opinion (Douglass, 1971).
Abilities of the media to significantly influence on the mass consciousness have been noted for a long time (Golding, 1974). Improving technical capabilities significantly expanded the scale of the media manipulation of the mass consciousness that gullibly and easily amenable impact. Nation does not have its own opinion, because it is not adapted to theoretical thinking, so as a result of any opinion it is necessary to squeeze the outside and under the pressure and skilful manipulation by information makes it almost limitless.
In the information age, the role of media in shaping public values, attitudes and beliefs is greatly increased. Media began to penetrate ever deeper into people's lives and provide dynamic and purposeful influence on the mass consciousness. This led to the fact that the individuals that make up the mass began to live in the world of "information phantoms", encouraged by the media. At the present stage, the media turned from a simple means of searching, processing and transmission of information tools for controlling and transforming the inner, spiritual world. Instead of expanding the horizons of human consciousness, giving him the sovereignty and independence of judgment, the modern media tougher manipulate the consciousness of the masses with the help of publicized standards of conduct. Trying to convey to consumer information, the media do their most important task. It makes sure that in the public mind, this information caused the reaction, corresponding to the requirements of the customer, in the face of which can act as private individuals and the state (Yakasai,1996). A wide variety of media (television, press, radio, Internet should lead to the individualization of nature, activities and human consciousness, giving them a choice: to watch or not to watch television. But, in common opinion, this is only an illusion, a person has no choice (Jika and Ali, 2002). The vast number of people watching TV, the same channels, programs, and in the order, which was approved by the regulations of the program transmission. They read the same articles in magazines and newspapers, which are read by most of the other people listening to the same radio and news programs, hurrying about their business or vacation homes.
This situation gives rise to ambiguity of media estimation. On the one hand, Media is the development of mass communication media and a positive effect on the awareness of individuals about the world, but at the same time, it is manipulating the consciousness of the masses. The media and mass communication provoke the masses in the individual, standardized views, behaviour, and produce uniformity of their reactions. It was once said that the one who owns the information, he owns the world. Today, it is possible to say confidently that whoever controls the media, he is able to influence the attitudes of people and their behaviour, and in general, the mass consciousness in the society (Yakasai, 1996).
Media can also play other different roles in national development. First, the media leads to the development of approach by setting standards for the society and, therefore, the creation of the changes. This includes the distribution of news and information in response to basic human needs (Jika and Ali, 2002). Moreover, the security of public justice is also role of the media in national context. The media is not only expected to tell the story of the events, but the media is also expected to analyse. Moreover, it has the duty to inform people about the development projects and other significant news for national development.
The media is the system of technical and printed means of information transmission. The system that developed more than two centuries became the way of communication between the government and the society and vice versa. Nowadays, the development of the modern world makes the up-to-date information available on different sources. Media became really mass in the last few decades and became a part of people’s everyday life. That is why it is one of the most powerful tools to move the social opinion and to form it. Some state that the press is the nice way to develop the nation, but other cynics think that it is also the way to control the minds. The matter is that people generally cannot check the information, and take everything for granted. This field needs some additional research. The other question is that the youth and children spend a lot of time in front of TV or their monitors. So, the main question is the responsibility and the control of the information that is in the free reach.
All in all, the nation is easily changed and developed by the media. Although it is hard to predict the character of the changes, but still information flow stays the most powerful tool to manage the social mind. References
Cuthbert, M.. (1977). Mass media in national development: governmental perspectives in Jamaica and Guyana. Caribbean quarterly, 23(4), 90–105. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40653344.
Douglass, E. (1971). The Role of The Mass Media in National Development: A Reformulation With Particular Reference to Sierra Leone.
Golding, P. (1974). Media Role in National Development Critique of a Theoretical Orthodoxy.Journal of Communication, [online] 24(3), pp.39-53. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1974.tb00387.x/abstract [Accessed 11 Jan. 2016].
Jika, A. and Ali, M. (2002). Mass media and national development. Kano: Munawwar Books International.
Schramm, W. (1964). Mass media and national development. Stanford, calif.: stanford university press.
Yakasai A.S. 1996 - On The Press Responsibilities; Matters Arising (A Tutorial Handout for the International Institute of Journalism Diploma Course).
Yakasai A.S. 1996 - Duty of The Press (A Tutorial Handout of the International Institute of Journalism Course).