Good Scottish Educational Policy Critical Thinking Example
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Scotland is proud of its higher education. For many countries, the Scottish structure of higher education serves as a model to create their own systems. The accumulation of Scottish higher education institutions experience evidenced by the fact that four of the first six UK universities were opened in Scotland. First Scottish university was founded in 1411.
Scotland, since the beginning of the 15th century is a leader in education. Educational systems in countries such as the USA, Canada and China follow the model pioneered by the Scots. Multistage character and variability - such words can characterize the education system in Scotland. Already in 1496 in Scotland, was introduced compulsory schooling for children from the age of six. Currently, all children between the ages of 5 and 16 years must attend school(Bryce &Humes, 2008). At the age of sixteen ends the mandatory four-year secondary school. Confirmation of the first phase of schooling is the exam Standard Grade, which is equivalent to GCSE exam in England. After this, students has the right to choose the future path of study: go to educational institutions providing vocational education or continue their education at the school in order to get a certificate, which allows entering higher education.
Higher exams are usually done in the fifth year of study and include examinations for 4, 5 or 6 subjects that give students a thorough and in-depth study, and individual choice. Some schools offer the exam for the A-level. During the sixth year of study, students improve their knowledge in the chosen subjects of Highers, take extra items or deepen the knowledge to pass the Advanced Higher, which, starting with the 2000/2001 academic year, replaces sixth year diploma - Certificate of Sixth Year Studies. Diplomas of Highers and Advanced Higherare recognized for admission to all universities in the UK. Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) controls quality of examinations. This system covers all state programs, which train students - high school and further education to higher education.
For young people at the age of sixteen and older people in Scotland there is a single coherent system of further education and training. Scotland has a network of 43 colleges of further education. There are extensive campuses in the centers of large cities and small specialized colleges serving the population of remote villages and islands. High standards of training and qualifications are highly valued by students, employers and awarding bodies. Colleges offer academic and professional qualifications in most subjects, from entry level to the level of the diploma of higher education.
Further Education in Scotland is flexible and can be obtained in full-time, evening classes, at work, in the correspondence department by examination at the request of, and in some cases, through the recognition of prior learning and experience. All colleges have short courses and can create an individual program for the needs of prospective students, as well as for organizations or employers. Many colleges have accreditation agreements with universities. The modular approach allows students to further education colleges transferred to the University for the Second or even the Third year. The rates depend on innovations and expertise, and qualifications may be obtained gradually, step by step. Many courses include practice in local businesses, allowing students to practice their skills in a real working environment. This gives students the opportunity to acquire professional skills and experience required employers.
There are courses in the following subjects: the organization of hotel management, tourism organization, business, finance, accounting, information technology, nursing courses, foreign languages, marketing, visual arts, drama, media, science, leisure industry and exams for high school course. Learning outcomes are assessed within the college throughout the course under strict control by the external Scottish Qualifications Department, which develops and approves training. All qualifications are internationally recognized.The new unified qualification system, introduced in 1999, applies to the average, and to further education. It includes:
• Scottish Vocational Qualifications (SVQs), which correspond to the state standards applied in industry, including certification in the workplace.
• National Certificate and Higher National Certificate
• Higher National Diploma
GSVQs: for schools and further education students aged 16-19 years, as well as for adults who wish to continue their education. This step gives the basic skills, in-depth education and training to higher education. Situation with education in Scotland is very similar to the situation in England, but there are important differences. Major watershed was the reform of 1998. Before the reform, with kindergartens and compulsory primary and secondary school teachers worked. As a rule, they were college graduates, which provides relatively good wages and working conditions. At the other extreme were the nurse with a low level of preparation, work in the family gruppax extended day for a very low cost. The average level of workers occupied the children's welfare institutions working with children and young school-age and younger caregivers often busy with children aged 3 to 5 years, as well as children with special needs.
The level of training and wages in this category was higher than that of nurses, but still remained low. Reform of 1998 did not abolish this division and hierarchy, but also led to a sharp increase in the number of younger teachers and reduce the number of nurses who want to work. Attempts to increase the level of training of workers in child welfare institutions included the expansion of learning "on the job"; reduction of numerous qualifications in a single system "stages" that facilitates professional growth and change profile, and create new opportunities for improvement, for example, due to the emergence of the category "senior practitioner." The task of the day was to attract new employees to work in institutions - in particular, on the basis of a national recruitment quotas for under-represented groups, such as men.
As a result of the publication of the report on the prospects of the teaching profession has grown salary of teachers, but it has increased the gap between them and other groups, including social workers and primary caregivers. The authors of the report suggested to try the next one planning the number of the teaching corps, including recruitment, training and professional development. Work has begun to map the workforce. As part of the renovation of community schools attempts to bring together the issues of education, health and family support services and combine to introduce new categories of workers (Barker, 2009). Thus, in many administrative areas appeared position "on a single service manager" (or similar)(Prowle, 2000). In Glasgow, the work on unification of kindergartens, primary and secondary schools in the "educational community", headed by the Director may be representing any of the schools.
With the transfer of all children's institutions under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education Scotland have made incremental improvements without the need for a radical restructuring of the frame, with its division into teachers, junior teachers and child welfare workers. The emergence of the category of "senior practitioner" and the increase in the number of younger teachers teaching only increased differentiation. Between teachers and other groups of teachers is still a huge difference in the level of training, pay and status.Another reform was related to the General Teaching Council for Scotland (GTCS), established in 1965 to monitor the quality of teaching staff (at regulations of 2005, all teachers must be registered on the board).
In 2012, the Council granted the status of an independent body, but the Public Services Reform Order 2011 has replaced an act of 1965. The functions of the body are the registration of teachers, analysis of their aptitude, approval of educational standards. Commission on the Future Delivery of Public Services has been established in 2010 to develop recommendations for social services. Independent from the government commission issued a report in June 2011, which caused a considerable resonance in academia and society. Community learning and development plays an important role in the education strategy of the Scottish Government.
Post-16 Education Reform is another policy that aims at developing the life chances for younger people by supporting economic growth and increasing the number of jobs. For young people between the age of 16 and 24, the Scottish government offers a true commitment regarding the ways of offering education, employment and training. It also offers support to people who are in the motto of migrating to negative destinations. The national initiative of the Scottish government is addressing low levels of adult literacy and numeracy in the country. The government aims at strengthening its economy by 2020 by making its adults read and write along with communicating their opinions and ideas to make effective decisions.
Bryce, T., &Humes, W. (2008). Scottish education. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Prowle, M. (2000). The changing public sector. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Gower.
Barker, B. (2009). Public service reform in education: why is progress so slow?. Journal Of Educational Administration And History, 41(1), 57-72
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