Good Term Paper About Acid Rains: Potential Hazards And Mitigation Strategies
Type of paper: Term Paper
Topic: Acid, Rain, Rainfall, Acid Rain, Development, Environment, Aliens, Health
Acids rains are one of the major global and local environmental issues ignored in the past. Industrial revolution in the last century is the prime cause of acid rains which threatened the human, animals, and aesthetic nature of the historical places and monuments. Hence, it is imperative to consider its causes due to potential hazards and subsequent mitigation strategies.
Acid rains are termed for rain having acidic nature. It occurs due to the interaction of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that reacts with water molecules present in the atmosphere. Consequently, it increases the deposition levels of hydrogen ions, or, in other words, low pH. The SO2 is mainly generated by the burning of fossil fuels in power generation plants as well as other stationery resources. NOx are generated from the automobiles and industries. In past, the industries also used to possess small stacks for the smoke emissions. It developed many issues, and they had been replaced by taller stacks which used to make the smoke scattered to thousands of kilometers (Menz, Hans & Seip, 2004).
Acid rains develop an oxidative stress in plants. The reactive oxygen species may be reduced by the antioxidant enzymes as well as the small molecular antioxidants. This phenomenon plays a prime role in the poor performance of plants eating animals as it could effect to their health and performance adversely. Acid rain affects the lengths of the larval period and the pupil weight (Ruuhola et. al.2009). In addition, the materials that are built of cement are under threat of acid rains. The acid rain makes destruction materials and monuments due to a hydration process that possess alkaline substances (Bravo et. al.2006).
The humans get negatively affected indirectly by acid rains. These health effects are mainly caused by the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. The fine particles of sulfate and nitrate in the atmosphere can be transported to long distances through wind, and a person may inhale these poisonous substances. These particles used to enter the lungs and start playing their destructive role. These particles can also develop indoor air pollution issue and the person get infected that lead to fatal diseases, as well as eye and skin irritation. (Briney, 2015; Menz, Hans & Seip, 2004).
The acid rain can affect forests growth and freshwater bodies as well as soils. Moreover, it may kill different insects that cause adverse effect on the aquatic life. The chemical morphology and biology of soil is also being badly affected. This is because of microbes that become unable to sustain and tolerate the changes due to low pH and, they get killed. The associated enzymes with these microbes also may be changed and become denatured that is referred as a change in shape, and they become unable to perform their proper functions. (Bravo et. al. 2006Briney, 2015; Ruuhola et. al, 2009).
Acids rains have a significant impact on agricultural activities and public health that demand proper mitigations. In the past decades, many policies and regulation were being developed as far as the acidic rain is concerned. But there is a need to implement these regulations particularly in developing and under-developing nations that lacking resources and technology to curtail the emissions. The limestone can facilitate to attain the soil efficacy back and remove irregularities and harmful effects from soil caused by the acid rain. The prevention measures are also integral to minimize the exposure of chemical hazards. The proper education and adequate management practices could improve the prevailing situation (Ruuhola et al.2009; Briney, 2015; Menz, Hans & Seip, 2004).
In short, acid rains have the potential threat for man, aquatic life and environment. There is a need to implement adequate policy measures and technology as well as developing awareness among the masses.
Bravo A.H, Sosa E.R., Sánchez A.P., Soto A.R., Alarcón J.A.L., Kahl, J & Ruíz B.J..(2006).Effect of acid rain on building material of the El Tajı´n archaeological zone in Veracruz, Mexico, Environmental Pollution. 144, 655– 660.
Briney, A. (2015). Acid Rain: The Causes, History, and Effects of Acid Rain. About.com Education. Retrieved 22 March 2015, from http://geography.about.com/od/globalproblemsandissues/a/acidrain.htm
Menz, F.C., Hans M. & Seip, H.M.(2004). Acid rain in Europe and the United States– An Update, Environmental Science & Policy. 7. 253–265.
Ruuhola, T, Neuvonen, S., Rantala, L.M, Rantala,.Rantala, M.J.& M.J.Yang, S (2009). Effects of long–term simulated acid rains on a plant-herbivore interaction, Jr. of Basic and Applied Ecology, 10 (7), 589–596