Free Research Paper About Religious Leader And Mass Mediated Political Activism
Buddhism, which has a history of several thousand years, includes preached in Tibet Buddhism (Lamaism), which pays special attention to the monastic vows, spiritual guidance, the great teachings of the Dharma, and care for the welfare of all beings. The Dalai Lama - a transmission line (tulku) in Tibetan Buddhism of the Gelugpa school, dating back to 1391. According to the beliefs of Tibetan Buddhism, the Dalai Lama is a reincarnation of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, the bodhisattva of compassion. Starting from the XVII century until 1959 the Dalai lamas were theocratic rulers of Tibet, to lead the country out of the Tibetan capital Lhasa. In connection with this, the Dalai Lama is regarded as the spiritual leader of the Tibetan people.
Thubten Gyatso - the thirteenth Dalai Lama, spiritual and temporal head of Tibet in 1895-1933. In domestic policy he distinguished himself as an outstanding reformer, in the external - as a skilled diplomat, a fighter for the independence of his country. During his reign, Tibet was a sovereign state. The Dalai Lama XIII is also known as the most important figure of the Central Asian part of the "Great Game" - diplomatic and military confrontation between Russia, Britain and the Qing Empire in the late XIX - early XX centuries, in which he has long supported the Russian side.
Thubten Gyatso has seen the need for economic, social and other reforms in a "Land of Snows". After the independence of Tibet in 1912 and the formation of a de facto independent state of Tibet, he began to act: corrected Tibetan legislation to counter corruption in the administrative environment; established a system of national taxation; created a police force. In addition, the First Hierarch of the Buddhists helped to strengthen discipline in Tibetan monasteries and increased the number of secular officials to avoid concentrating too much power in the hands of the monks. The Dalai Lama showed an interest in Western science and technology. During his reign appeared in Lhasa electricity and telegraph, began to print money and stamps. Anticipating military clashes of Tibet and China, experienced politician during his reign repeatedly carried out reforms to modernize the Tibetan army, in consultation with the Russian, British and Japanese experts in military affairs. In 1916, the Lhasa government sent several soldiers and officers to India for training shooting of guns and automatic weapons. During the reign of Thubten Gyatso got a new life the traditional concept of Greater Tibet, which meant spiritual and political power of the Dalai Lama over all territories inhabited by ethnic Tibetans.
His Holiness the Dalai Lama XIV, Tenzin Gyatso, is the spiritual leader of the Tibetan people. The Dalai Lama was enthroned at February 22, 1940 in Lhasa, capital of Tibet. In November 17, 1950, after the entry of troops of People's Liberation Army of China into Tibet, His Holiness, who was then only 16 years old, was forced to take over political power, becoming head of state and government. In 1954 he went to Beijing for peace talks with Mao Tse-tung and other Chinese leaders, including Zhou En-lai and Teng Hsiao-ping. In 1956, visiting India as part of the celebration of the 2500th anniversary of the birth of the Buddha, he is holding a series of meetings with Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Chinese Prime Minister Zhou En-lai to discuss the deteriorating situation in Tibet.
His efforts for a peaceful settlement of the Tibetan-Chinese conflict were negated by a rigid policy of Beijing in eastern Tibet, which resulted in the civil unrest. Resistance movement quickly spread to other parts of Tibet. In March 10, 1959 in the Tibetan capital, Lhasa, broke out unprecedented in its scope rebellion. The participants demanded China to withdraw from Tibet and asserted the independence of their country. The Tibetan people's uprising was brutally suppressed by the Chinese army. His Holiness left Tibet and was granted political asylum in India. About 80 thousand Tibetans followed after him into exile. Since 1960, the Dalai Lama lives in Dharamsalathe, Indian town, which is called "Little Lhasa". There's headquarters of the Tibetan government in exile. In the early years of exile, His Holiness has repeatedly appealed to the United Nations for assistance in resolving the issue of Tibet. As a result, the UN General Assembly adopted three resolutions (in 1959, 1961 and 1965), urging China to respect human rights in Tibet and Tibetans desire for self-determination. Forming a new Tibetan government in exile, His Holiness considered the primary task in the survival of Tibetans in exile and salvation of their culture. For this purpose were based settlement of Tibetan refugees, the main occupation was agriculture. Economic development and the educational system contributed to the education of a new generation of Tibetan children, well knowing their language, history, religion and culture. In 1959 there were established Tibetan Institute of Dramatic Arts and the Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies - higher education for Tibetans living in India. For the conservation of big collection of teachings of Tibetan Buddhism - the basis of the Tibetan way of life in exile, there was reconstituted over 200 monasteries.
In 1963 His Holiness proclaimed democratic constitution, based on Buddhist principles and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a model for future free Tibet. Today, the Tibetan parliament is formed through elections. His Holiness has consistently emphasized the need to democratize the Tibetan administration and has repeatedly said that after the resolution of the Tibetan issue, he will not take any political position. In 1987 at the meeting of the US Congress on Human Rights Dalai Lama put forward a "peace plan of the five points" as a first step to create a zone of peace in Tibet. The plan envisaged the termination of the mass migration of Chinese into Tibet, restoration of fundamental human rights and democratic freedoms, the cessation of the use by China of Tibetan territory as a place for the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear waste disposal, as well as the beginning of serious negotiations on the future of Tibet. In Strasbourg, he put forward an extended version of the "five-point plan", proposing democratic self-government in Tibet ", in collaboration with the People's Republic of China." September 2, 1991 the Tibetan government-in-exile announces the Strasbourg proposal invalid by virtue of secrecy and the negative attitude of the Chinese leadership towards extended in Strasbourg proposals.
Since 1973, when His Holiness first visited Western countries, many foreign institutions and universities awarded him with awards and honorary degrees in recognition of his brilliant works on Buddhist philosophy and the active promotion of interreligious dialogue, solutions of international conflicts, issues related to the violation of human rights and environmental pollution. Handing the Prize of the Raoul Wallenberg to His Holiness (meeting of the US Congress on Human Rights), Congressman Tom Lantos said: "The courageous struggle of His Holiness of the Dalai Lama demonstrates that he is a leading leader in the fight for human rights and peace throughout the world. His inexhaustible desire to put an end to the suffering of the Tibetan people through peaceful negotiations and reconciliation policy requires enormous courage and sacrifice. " The decision of the Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize to His Holiness the Dalai Lama met with approval of the entire world community (except China). The Committee emphasized that "the Dalai Lama in his struggle for the liberation of Tibet consistently opposes the use of violence. It calls for a peaceful resolution, based on tolerance and mutual respect, in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people. " In December 10, 1989 His Holiness the Dalai Lama received the Nobel Prize on behalf of all those who were persecuted, all who struggle for freedom and work for peace in the world, as well as on behalf of the Tibetan people.
Benedict XVI - Bishop of the Roman Catholic Church, the 265th Pope (from 19 April 2005 to 28 February 2013). In September 12, 2006, Benedict XVI gave at the University of Regensburg a lecture on the role of reason in Christianity and Islam, as well as the concept of holy war. He quoted the words of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel II, that Muhammad brought the world only "something evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached." His words provoked a strong reaction in the Muslim world.
Turkish Islamic party joined the wave of criticism against comments of the Pope Benedict XVI on Islam, accusing him of trying to resurrect the spirit of the Crusades. Representatives of the party said that the Pope just interprets the story, as did Hitler and Mussolini. As a sign of protest the Indian Muslims burned copies of the newspaper with the speech of Benedict XVI. Benedict XVI said twice "I quote" but the performance of the Pope provoked an angry reaction from Muslim leaders. Islamic University "Al-Azhar" urged the Vatican to the scientific approach to the study of Islam, which will ensure mutual respect necessary for dialogue between representatives of different religions. Islamists have threatened to attack the Vatican. To the text statement "Army of the Mujahideen" has made a video of attacks on US military facilities in Iraq, "dedicating" them to Benedict XVI. Militants from the group "Army of the Mujahideen" have vowed to destroy the cross in the heart of Rome, as well as destroy the thrones and crosses on the territory of their opponents. Pope Benedict XVI began his Sunday sermon with regrets concerning the reaction of the Islamic world to the speech pronounced by him on Thursday in Regenburg University in Germany. He reminded that on Saturday a new Vatican Secretary of State Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone issued an official denial.
In March 20, 2010, for the first time in the history of the papacy, Benedict XVI, in connection with a government investigation of cases of sexual abuse of children and concealment by the episcopate in the Catholic Church in Ireland, issued appropriate pastoral letter to the Catholics of Ireland, in which stated that pedophile priests "betrayed the trust extended to them by innocent young people and their parents" and "must answer for it before Almighty God and before the law in order, established by the court" and who are accused in causing enormous damage to the victims, as well as the Church and the public perception of the priesthood and religious life. In March - April 2010 in the world's media were published materials on which Benedict was accused of personal involvement in sane cases of hiding pedophile abuse in Bavaria and the United States. In response speeches were made in defense of Benedict XVI, in particular, an article of a priest Thomas Brundage, former judicial vicar of the diocese Milwaukee and head of the trial of the priest Lawrence Murphy, who was accused of sexual abuse of deaf children. In Britain, a number of people, including Richard Dawkins, has launched a campaign calling for the arrest of Benedict at his arrival in the United Kingdom: in September 2010 was scheduled the first visit of the Pope in the status of a state visit that also triggered calls in the British media to cancel it and other scandalous incidents. During his visit to Malta Benedict XVI met with victims of sexual abuse by priests, and in conversation with them, in particular, expressed his "shame and sorrow". He assured that the church will continue to do "everything in its power to bring the offenders to justice and for protection of young people".
The Pope was also criticized for the abolition of excommunication from church of several ultraconservative bishops of the Society of St. Pius X, one of whom publicly denied the Holocaust, and for the assumption that the use of condoms exacerbates the problem of AIDS.
After Christmas Mass in 2008 Italian Susanna Maiolo, apparently suffering from mental illness, was trying to break through to the Pope and to bite him. Security officials were able in time to prevent the incident. During Christmas Mass in 2009, the same Susanna Maiolo again tried to break through to the Pope and embrace him; security officers tried to stop her, but she caught the Pontiff for dress and pushed to the floor; Benedict was not injured and soon continued service. Benedict XVI took decision to abdicate the throne on February 28.
Rowan Douglas Williams - 104th Archbishop of Canterbury, Metropolitan of the province of Canterbury, primate of all England and the head of all Anglicans, poet, theologian. Rowan Williams was elected archbishop in 2002 - primarily due to his reputation of a liberal outstanding theologian and man with progressive political views. Intellectual, who owns five languages, who was not afraid to openly express his disagreement with the policy of Great Britain in Iraq, was initially greeted with enthusiasm. But soon a new hierarch disappointed many of his supporters, his position on gay marriage, gays in the church and women priests was more conservative than it was expected of him. Public statements of Archbishop on these topics repeatedly caused criticism, and his words about that in the UK there need to enter the Sharia for immigrants from Muslim countries, caused a storm of indignation. According to him, the inclusion of certain rules of Sharia law in legal practice would help to preserve the unity in British society, as Muslims would not have to choose between loyalty to the national culture and loyalty to the country. Several leaders of British Muslims, including members of the House of Commons, condemned his statements because they can lead to anti-Islamic aggression and "all British citizens should be equal before the law". Hierarch even had to justify himself and explain that he was not referring to the introduction of Sharia law on a par with British law but merely called "take into account the characteristics of the traditional way of life." According to Williams, his main goal is to divide the emerging issues around the rights of religious groups within a secular state.
The situation of the Anglican Church is very complicated. The dioceses in African countries firmly reject liberal ideas about gay marriage and gay priests. At the same time in Great Britain itself the position of Rowan Williams and his supporters is undermined not only by the pressure from the liberal-minded society but also the direct accusations of lawyers and human rights activists recalling that the ban on borrowing of certain positions on the basis of sexual orientation or gender violates British law. Nevertheless, the Archbishop of Canterbury for a long time still managed to unite the church. Thus, according to Archbishop of Wales "Dr Williams will remain in history as the best hierarch of the Church of England over the last decade."
Ali Hosseini Khamenei is the second Supreme Leader of Iran and a Shia Cleric. Ali Khamenei, has traditionally been considered the leader of the conservative movement in Iran. Khamenei has greatly expanded the influence of the Supreme Leader, providing to him some presidential powers relating to the control of work of the Parliament, the Presidential Administration, the Council of Ministers, the judiciary, Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, the media, the armed forces, intelligence, police and various non-governmental organizations, foundations, councils and business communities. At the same time, Ayatollah Khamenei provides great support to scientific progress. He pays great attention to the development of nuclear energy. According to him, oil and gas reserves are not unlimited.
At the post of supreme leader Khamenei tried to keep in the background while maintaining the status of a "spiritual leader" of Iran, refused to meet with political leaders of the United States and has repeatedly made strong statements against the US and Israel. However, he condemned the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001: According to him, any massacre is unacceptable, no matter who is the killer and the victim. In this case, Khamenei opposed the US military operation in Afghanistan, despite the bad relations between Iran and the Afghan movement "Taliban". However, this did not prevent Khamenei to support the movement "Hezbollah" and Hamas, which in the United States, Israel and some other countries, are considered as terrorist. Criticism of the United States is an integral part of any public speeches of Ayatollah Khamenei. He criticizes the US government for the imperialist policy in the Middle East, for support of Israel, for the aggression against Iraq.
In 1997, when Mohammad Khatami was elected as president of Iran, experts said that Khamenei is ready to allow a minor liberalization of domestic and foreign policy of the country to avoid a social explosion. Khamenei supported the creation of peaceful nuclear energy program in Iran and in 2004 issued a fatwa (religious instruction) for Muslims, which banned the use of nuclear weapons. He also called for the development of the scientific potential of Iran; in particular, allow stem cell research and cloning. However, Khamenei continued to be called one of the most conservative politicians in Iran, and in 2005 he supported the election of conservative President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
Ram Rahul. March of Central Asia. (2000)
Clifford G. Christians, John C. Merrill. Ethical Communication: Moral Stances in Human Dialogue. (2009)
Aasef Shafik. Global Peace Lovers. (2011)
Bernat Joan. Interview with Tenzin Gyatso the 14th Dalai Lama. (2008)
William G. Rusch. The Pontificate of Benedict XVI: Its Premises and Promises. (2009)
Colette Dower. Towards Healing and renewal a pastoral response from the Irish Catholic Bishops’ Conference. (2011)
Emmanuel Charles McCarthy. Pope Benedict XVI’s Last Word to the Church. (2010)
Peter Toon. Rowan Douglas Williams. Reflections from the Editor’s Desk. (2002)
Amelia Hill. Rowan Williams: from least loved to cleverest man in the Church of England. (2012)
Karim Sadjadpour. Reading Khamenei: The World View of Iran’s Most Powerful Leader. (2009)
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