Good The Historical Analysis Of The Libyan Valleys Essay Example

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: People, Agriculture, Soil, Water, Rome, Town, Cultivation, Settlement

Pages: 7

Words: 1925

Published: 2021/01/15

The Historical Analysis of Libyan Valleys

This study seeks to establish the solicitation for the human settlement in the Libyan Valleys via exploration of some factors and intensive study of Libyan landscape. Since the earlier century, all through to Roman reign as well as Byzantine era; the country had an extreme agricultural practice and knowledge. In addition, the explorers from Europe as well as the Arabs (GREENE, 1986, p.60) embarked on the excavation studies. Conversely, the study also seeks to establish and emphasize the agricultural importance in the country. Furthermore; the focus was channeled in coastal areas more as opposed to hinterland areas. Nonetheless, Key factors are taken into considerations in order to achieve the vital aspects of past growth as well the people’s way of life as at the time.
The explorations of some factors, as elucidated by some authors such as Barker and Jones in an effort to achieve its objective, became diverse. These include the terrain and the population in forms of growth, cultivation methods amongst others.

Terrain and population

The country has an extension of more than 1.5 kilometer square in millions with more than 1800 kilometer of landscape bordering the sea. The dry and the sea regions had a distinction in terms of the amount of rain received in the two regions. The land bordering sea comprises of both good and fertile land for cultivation as well as unproductive land that cannot sustain good agricultural practices. The variation elaborates the difference in the oil stratum. It explains the gentle Tripolitania soils as well as the red soils in al-Djabal al-Akhdar (MATTINGLY, 2011, p. 131). However, one is likely to find the wet soil plateau in the dry and semi-desert areas. The regions less productive in oil production offered good sites as they acted as grounds for farm animals feeding sites. Barren vast of land put forth a clear demarcation inform of the productive deserts with land suitable for cultivation and the stony land that cannot support agricultural activities.

Pre-Islamic collection of people

Tripolitania was the one region in the entire country where there was an organized format for storing information (CHERRY, 1998, p.108). However, in the case of Cyrenaica, people could access the information concerning the single characters of different historical events, for instance, the large structures in the sea areas pending publication of Lady Brogan’s on that site (GREENE, 1986, p. 237). On the other hand, the original selfhood of the residences became difficult to ascertain due to the complexity of the structures. It is due to the earlier Islamic arrangements because the Muslims did not comply with the established standard principles.
Areas of settlement mainly determined land fertility in terms of crop productivity and security. Nonetheless, the fertile land areas could bring forth higher agricultural yields thereby becoming densely populated as opposed to semi-desert as well as steppe that were unproductive. For this reason, the people in the productive areas could optimize agricultural practices. The aim of the occupants was to improve their living standards, and it motivated them to look for fertile lands where it would become easy to meet the basic needs, for instance, the food. On the other hand, improved living standards alleviated the social crimes in the communities. It explains why the people did not prefer the semi-desert areas thereby becoming sparsely populated. Arrangements in valleys were either a small collection of people or dispersed settlement at some certain given intervals, for instance, in the case of Kabir Wadi (BOWMAN, & WILSON, 2013, p. 203)
Areas with good, accessible, flexible and well-outlined means of information transmission were also densely populated as opposed other areas with an inappropriate means transmission. An example of the areas with improved infrastructure is the al-Djabal al-Akhdar, which was densely populated despite it having low means of water supply. It was the contrary to plateaus, which were sparsely populated. Therefore, a good port link in al-Djaba provided the area with an added advantage because people could access it hence becoming possible to internetwork with the other regions. Agricultural events are another factor that influenced Libyan mode of settlement all through until the initialization of the modernized (VEEN & COX, 2011, p. 151)

Growth Changes

Over a long period, the country was always in the forefront to safeguard its water catchment areas so as to ensure water adequacy. However, the occupants achieved it by putting up walls and building structures from the Romans all through to the Byzantine like the waterworks in Cyrenaica (CONANT, 2012, p.147). The water preservation and soil protection in Mediterranean areas, for instance, in the case of water projects at the Cyrenaica initial rural growth in the country thereby promoting the growth of the country. It depicted the availability of a good and reliable climatic state during the Christian period. The high and great walls of South Tripolitania also stood to support the fact in conjunction with the Dams situated in Leptis Magna (BOWMAN, & WILSON, 2013, P. 218).
The people constructed the large Mimoun Wadi walls to provide enforcement, support and sustain the water levels, and content in the soil is hence maintaining the soil fertility. In addition, it promoted soil fertility in terms of the retention of the humus thereby promoting the agricultural practices (MATTINGLY, 2011, p.15). Other methods were effective in gathering the rainy water: this was via dirt removal in stony over sides as well as the establishment of branches in sloppy landscapes amongst other activities. In the recent times, the citizenry discovered that they could trace the conservation structures in the surroundings of the Luptis Magna (BARKER, HODGES, & CLARK, 1995, p. 301).
The settlement was either distributed in small groupings as elaborated in earlier chapters. Collection settlement mainly comprised the enormous community, for instance, in the case of Mediterranean areas. Small groupings also existed in the inner lands as well such as the al-Qaryahb Al-Gharbia. There existed huge interval in terms of distance from one group to another. However, the water accessibility led to the people crowding mainly in the areas where they. The dispersed settlement mainly constituted of the agricultural sectors in fields surrounded by chandelier structures, for example in the areas of Cyrenaica. In addition, the structures of the Middle towers acted as a dwelling place for the rulers as well as the influential people in the society who help high social status in the communities (CONANT, 2012, p 202). Furthermore, the structures acted as the designated areas for keeping farm yields, and in other scenarios they enhanced place of refuge.

Methods of Cultivation

The availability of water in the coastal areas enhanced a good ecosystem for crop watering. For example, in Cyrenaica, Apollonia (Susah) as opposed to areas of Tripolitania, Leptis Magna, and the other environs, since the era of Hellestic. Other opportunities materialized as a result of fishing activities in conjunction with farm animal’s reproduction, like the sheep. The inner dry lands mainly comprised the static arrangement especially in the wadis of the slopes as well as the semi-desert areas. Moreover, the relatively flat grounds at the valley bases facilitated cereal farming like the olives.
People could graze the farm animals in different areas, for instance, at the valley basement after gathering the crops or, at the environs of the valley provided ample pasture. People practiced it by shifting the animals from one region to the other in search of pastures at different periods (MATTINGLY, 2011, P.35).However; the act signifies the culture of barren land cultivation around the Mediterranean, which mainly inhabited traditional methods of cultivation, and it comprised of farm animals like horses and sheep. In addition, people cultivated cereals like wheat, mainly in areas such as Tripolitania Djabal, Tarhunah as well as Mistratah. People also grew olive trees in the north since the era of the Caesar (VEEN & COX, 2011, 224).
Differential land territories existed in Cyrenaica since the fourth century on an unimpeded field in the upper plateau where livestock insemination. The citizenry practiced the cereals cultivation in the intermediate lands where cultivation of olive trees took place. On the other hand, the people shielded the intermediate grounds from dry winds that emanated from the south and, therefore, they stood better grounds for crop watering at large. It facilitated more room for crop cultivation which optimized agricultural activities leading to higher yields.

Economic Growth

During the Roman reign, which is before the first century, nomadism dominated the country, especially in Cyrenaica, Tripolitania as well as the agricultural movements specifically in Mediterranean areas. The above factors constituted the economy of that time Leptis Magna (MATTINGLY, 2011, p.342). Agricultural events overpowered nomadism making it fade away their domination of agriculture. It existed from the first reign through the Augustus reign all through to the Flavian. Therefore, the achievement was as a result of the rampant benefit from the activities that lead to the emergence of towns especially in Tripolitania. However, some other deals, which accrued from the trading events, emerged thereby enhancing the commerce activities in the area. Nevertheless, the people practiced slow farming activities in Mediterranean areas all through to the middle third century where it boomed rapidly.
The expansion of Roman reign brought forth an increase in revenue as a result of high taxes imposed especially during the Septimus Severus reign (GREENE, 1986, p.203). Settlement drastically changed from the first century all through to the third century where the different people established and adopted it as the mode of settlement as at the time. The suburban regions of Cyrenaica remained at a relatively unwavering position. It was due to the expansion of the Roman rule, as well as the benefits of those, had the Roman nationality where they enjoyed a tax-free zone. The change came into effect in the following areas; Sofeggin, Zem-zem and Kobir Wadis as well as the Cyrenaica and its environs. The settlement arrangement in the above areas embarked much on the small groups (CHERRY, 1998, p. 319).
The agricultural movements continued in Libya even after the departure of the Romans, which helped in the explanation of the people’s culture. Some places like the Ghirza indicated higher achievements in terms of the development levels and populated. Trade declined during the reign of Byzantine in the hinterland, especially in the Islamic era (VEEN & COX, 2011, p.38). On the other hand, there was an upsurge in soil erosion due to the crop damages, which resulted from over-cultivation, especially during the fourth century. As a result, it influenced desertification conditions in the areas thereby leading to a decline in the people’s living standards.

Economic product at Cyrenaica

As at the time of Greek as well as the Ptolemaic eras, researchers established silphiu as the most vital plants due to its economic benefits as per that time. However, the crop died out since people could no longer assemble or trace its remains. Originally, the farmers cultivated in Bunbah Gulf, and they cultivated mainly on the terrain between the fertile and the barren lands. The residents possessed the knowledge of its cultivation (GREENE, 1986, p. 258). Therefore, the people had control over it in all of it processes from planting, weeding, and its gathering until its delivery to the market from where the buyers could transport it to Greece. Despite the many efforts to plant the crop made by the Greeks, the efforts became futile because the plant was mainly suitable for barren landscapes.


The critical evaluation of the above factors shows the general firmness in the surrounding. The transition that happened since the past times all through to the recent times portrays normality forms. However, the transition occurred due to the relatively small climatic alterations, for instance, the wanton elimination of flora all through to the desertification like in the steppe and semi-desert areas. The act of togetherness is evident in campestral areas outlining the terrain in each even after splitting of Libya into Kingdom of the Garamantes, Tripolitania, and Cyrenaica. The reign of the Byzantine compromised the condition that existed during the Roman rule all through until Arabs came. The above factors tend to elaborate the history of human settlement in the Libyan Valleys from the ancient times, through the different reigns up to the present times. Additionally, the study elaborated on some features with their significances, and the farming practices and also the internetwork of the region with the local and outside world at large. Therefore, it is clear that Libyans had a good grip on agricultural activities since the ancient times. The different era also facilitated it, for instance, during the Roman rules.


GREENE, K. (1986). The archaeology of the Roman economy. Berkeley, University of
California Press.
MATTINGLY, D. J. (2011). Imperialism, power, and identity: experiencing the Roman empire.
Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press.
CHERRY, D. (1998). Frontier and society in Roman North Africa. Oxford, Clarendon Press
BOWMAN, A. K., & WILSON, A. (2013). The Roman agricultural economy: organization,
investment, and production.
VEEN, M. V. D., & COX, A. (2011). Consumption, trade and innovation: exploring the
botanical remains from the Roman and Islamic ports at Quseir al-Qadim, Egypt.
Frankfurt am Main, Africa Magna Verlag.
BARKER, G., HODGES, R., & CLARK, G. (1995). A Mediterranean valley: landscape
archaeology and Annales history in the Biferno valley. London, Leicester Univ. Press.
CONANT, J. (2012). Staying Roman: conquest and identity in Africa and the Mediterranean,
439-700. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
SOCIETY FOR LIBYAN STUDIES (LONDON, ENGLAND). (1979). Libyan studies: annual
report of the Society for Libyan Studies. London, Society for Libyan Studies.

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