Human Resource Management Essays Examples - Job Analysis
The purpose of job analysis is to ensure that the organization performs all its human resource related functions with more efficiency and in a definite pattern so as to ensure familiarity with all Human resource units. However, in saying so, it should also not be forgotten that the flexibility of job analysis designed is also crucial. It is because as the organizations change because of the external environment changes, the human resources should also adapt in similar manner, and the evaluation should also be modified because of the changed working standards. These amended working standards are better set if they are selected through a thorough process of job analysis.
This paper attempts to speak about the job analysis description, the various dimensions associated with the term, the activities that follow and the advantages that have been discussed in various researches along with the final assessment of its importance. The validity and reliability of the human resource tools that are used in various functions of the human resource can only be assessed if the job analysis is effective. It calls for the fact that all Companies that have a job analysis system will perform better in all their endeavors and states of functioning. There needs to be a job analysis procedure where the not just the qualifications and requirement for a position is explained and assessed, but it should also address the emotional need and other issues that are faced by the modern organizations in that particular title or in all positions in general.
The definition of job analysis has been interpreted in various ways, looking at the term from various angles in order to describe its importance. One of the prominent definitions suggests that job analysis can be taken as the detailed process of accumulating and analyzing the collected data regarding the content of the job, along with the requirements of the job in question. Additionally, it curtails the context which surrounds the job that needs to be performed. The process is carried out for the job placement activity (BusinessDictionary.com, 2015). The main feature of job analysis is the definition of these jobs’ organization and the recognition and continuous improvement of job development, providing avenues for those employees who wish to have a proper advancement in career and rise in the level of compensation.
The activities that make up the job analysis activity are a collection of such functions which take into account the overall attributes of the employees. The process primarily involves investigation of various attributes of a job such as the elements of performance or tasks that comprise the job, working conditions on the basis of which tasks are to be performed, the nature and extent of the aptitudes and attitudes required for the fulfillment of the job, along with other qualities like physique, knowledge level and skill development of the working person ( JOB ANALYSIS, 2015).
The objectives of job analysis in an organization may comprise of various scopes. However, the most identified objectives of carrying out a job analysis for an organization may be:
Finding out what the most effective approaches to the performance of a job are.
Increasing the level of satisfaction of the employees, to result in greater Company benefits.
Identifying and modifying the methods of training, required from time to time.
Setting the systems of performance measurement and its development.
Making the human resource selection process easier, by having a better system of comparing person specifications with pre-defined job specifications.
While understanding the role of job analysis in an organization, it is also necessary to understand the organization in terms of the institution’s structure, purpose, design and the organization processes, in terms of input/output relation, study of internal/external environments and the resources hindrances. Job analysis provides the way for the detailed consideration of the job elements and is a path to lead to the job description and finally to the job specification.
Job analysis is often also known as the audit of the human resource, analysis of the occupation involved, study of the job attributes at hand and is associated with terms like ‘ task analysis’, ‘activity analysis’ or ‘performance analysis’.
The literature review for this study has been undertaken the various researches, which have been conducted in the hope of assessing the advantages that are brought about in the organization by job analysis. Here, we have undertaken two pieces of literature.
Literature 1: Importance of Establishing a Job Analysis Exercise in an Organization:
The literature in this study argues that there is an improvement in the performance of the organization, by improving the broader areas of skill enhancement, planning workforce, designing the organization structure, and the betterment of other organizational functions such as recruitment and development of employee career. There is found to be a direct and positive association between job analysis and the excellence of organizational performance and especially with the needs to training and development (Nyasha, Makaita, Mukondiwa, Farai, Kudakwashe, Tafadzwa and Taonga, 2015). The statement presented in this regard is that job analysis helps the organization in identifying the skills gap, and thus the Company may be able to work on developing these skills, which ultimately leads to organizational efficiency.
The other finding is that job analysis needs to transition with age and requirements of the organization. This is because once a job analysis is done and specifications for an employee have been provided they tend to follow that specification as the usual activity for them to perform and fail to institutionalize that the job analysis differs from one time to another. Performance appraisal exists as the subset of job analysis, and this appraisal has been found to be the driving force for organizational improvement and growth.
The problems for the implementation of a job analysis have also been presented in the paper. Time and finance constraints, along with the tolerance to change are some of the reasons why job analysis may be a difficult phenomenon to implement. Job information is identified as an important aspect of job analysis, which ensures the cooperation of employees, even before the analysis is made.
However, these pros of establishing a job analysis system are overshadowed by the fact that this system may lead to unnecessary fear in employees, which will negatively affect their performances. As argued in some researches, the primary concerns of employees, with modern day delayering taking place at a continuous pace, and the downsizing provisions is the fear of being critically analyzed and finally laid off. If job analysis is taken as a threat rather than an opportunity, it directly influences the performance of the organization as a whole, which is not a good direction to follow.
Despite all these concerns, the vitality of a job analysis system is ensured by the fulfillment of the following aspects through job analysis:
- Appraisal of employee performance
- Maintaining employee health and safety
- Considerations of legality
- Facilitating labor and employee relationships
The core finding also underlies the fact the every member of the organization should be involved in the process of job analysis. This is to say that the effectiveness of job analysis can only be ensured if the employees are devoid of fears and provide reliable information to be used in the analysis. Information must be forwarded as to why the change is to be institutionalized and what roles and inputs the employees need to have. Only then can the true benefits of job analysis be identified.
Literature 2: Job analysis for a changing workplace
This paper introduces and discusses the concept of strategic job analysis, for the purpose of overcoming the flaws in the strategic analysis process. The primary implication concerned with the strategic job analysis is that it establishes an association with the validity part regarding the instruments that have been evolved from the process. The traditional form of job analysis is still in function because of which many of the organizations are still influenced by that traditional way (Singh, 2015).
One of the important creations of job analysis is the avoidance of discrimination among the employees. This can be ensured only if the properties affiliated to the HR procedure and tools selection are validated by carrying out studies. The information tool role of the whole process of job analysis, however, the forms in which they are used, is going to vary from one point to the other. The paper proposes a newer and modern way of job analysis, which acts as an evolutionary upgrading and tackles the emerging issues of organizations that may be solved through job analysis.
The analysis in the paper suggests that there needs to be flexibility when it comes to planning a job analysis, so as to deal with the rapid changes that are faced by the organization on a periodic basis. Accommodation of organization and its affiliates into the external environment changes can be made easier with the flexible job analysis. The proactive approach of job analysis has been highlighted, which is a boon to organizations when it comes to updating and evaluating themselves continuously.
With all the pros that job analysis brings to an organization and some of the cons that may be associated with the traditional use, the benefits of job analysis at the overall level cannot be neglected. The summary of the ways in which an organization can get benefitted may be presented by these functions which become smoother as job analysis is performed.
Hiring Process (Recruitment/ Selection):
The job analysis process helps in identifying and specifying the key performance indicators that are associated with each title or position. There are specifications such as the level of education, license or training requirements, and all other minimum criteria, based on which an individual suitable to the title is to be selected. This means job analysis provides the skill assessment of the people who are shortlisted for hiring (Autogoja.com, 2015). Job analysis also helps in the designing of tests and questions that need to be included in the selection and promotion rounds. An up to date job analysis will lead the Company to be in good terms with the current, as well as future processes of a similar kind.
The development of competent system for rewards and compensation:
The compensation or reward related to a position may be derived from the requirement of skill and knowledge that the title demands. It is also dependent on the conditions in which the employee functions. A standardized system of determination of rewards and compensation may be developed if the job analysis process is performed in a good manner. This way the employees can institutionalize the same values developed through mutual understanding and relationship profiles. It also provides a cross-sectional clearer picture across various job positions.
Training and development needs:
There is a continuous requirement of development when it comes to human resources. But to know when and for whom to launch a development plan, there is no guarantee of effectiveness. Thus, training and development needs can be well identified if the information received from job analysis is well used. This helps in the proper and timely designing of programs and packages for the betterment of the human resources, as the skills required by the different set of individuals is well recognized and entertained. Decisions such as transfer, promotion, and other activities may be taken on more solid grounds of information, providing a way to career development for employees who actually deserve the chance to grow (Network, 2015).
Evaluation of employee performance: Since job analysis provides a standard for the jobs that are being perfumed, it is easier to evaluate the performance of the employees and its impact on the performance of the organization.
Management of various forms of risks: Job analysis can help mitigate risks and even avoid them to a great extent if the proactive approach to job analysis is followed. The risk is also avoided because of clear work description.
Thus, job analysis is an integral part of any contemporary of modern day organization. IT should be explored in full forms in order to optimize the opportunities that it brings along with itself.
BusinessDictionary.com, (2015). What is a job analysis? definition and meaning. [online] Available at: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/job-analysis.html [Accessed 23 Apr. 2015].
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Network, U. (2015). Job Analysis | Human Resources | University of Nebraska–Lincoln. [online] Hr.unl.edu. Available at: http://hr.unl.edu/compensation/nuvalues/jobanalysis.shtml/ [Accessed 23 Apr. 2015].
Nyasha, M., P, K., T, C., Makaita, M., Mukondiwa, T., Farai, M., Kudakwashe, N., Tafadzwa, U. and Taonga, M. ed., (2015). Importance of Establishing a Job Analysis Exercise in an Organisation: A Case Study of Bread Manufacturing Companies in Zimbabwe.. 1st ed.
Singh, P. (2015). Job analysis for a changing workplace. 1st ed.
Autogoja.com, (2015). What are the benefits of doing a Job Analysis?. [online] Available at: http://www.autogoja.com/benefits_of_job_analysis.html [Accessed 23 Apr. 2015].