Key Notion Literature Reviews Example
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES IN ORGANIZATIONS
Javidan et al. (2006). Cross cultural lessons in leadership from project GLOBE. Academy of Management Perspectives. 67-89
This article underscores the centrality of global leadership in the success of multinational corporations. It relies on the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) to offer a premise for conceptualizing worldview. A hypothetical case of an American executive has been used discuss cultural implications. The executive is in charge of four teams in four countries including Egypt, Brazil, China and France. Javidan et al. (2006) posited that the impact of globalization is affecting all American corporations. Thus, American corporations can attain higher levels of excellence in a cross-cultural setting characterized by diverse employees, competitors, customers and creditors by examining the influence of national culture in business. The authors argued that culture affects every aspect of behavior and consequently affects executives that work in a multicultural environment (Javidan, 2006, p. 67). The lack of global leadership capabilities is the reason most managers of companies in Fortune 500 cannot influence global strategies. The choice of the four countries represents diversity in cultures and geographical region. Egypt is an Arab country with the highest population while France has the highest population in Europe. China is experiencing fast growth in Asia while Brazil is the most populous and economic powerhouse in South America.
This study reveals nine cultural practices that leaders should embody to ensure that they succeed in management. They include performance orientation, assertiveness, humane orientation, future orientation, institutional collectivism, power distance, in-group collectivism uncertainty avoidance and gender egalitarianism (72). The study revealed that outstanding leadership qualities in Brazil include team oriented leadership, charismatic/value based leadership, team-oriented leadership and participative leadership dimensions. Charismatic leadership is where the leader exudes certain unique leadership capabilities that win the confidence, support and admiration from his followers. Team-oriented leadership demonstrates the leader’s capability to work in a team. Thus, managers in Brazil should demonstrate these qualities to ensure that they emerge top.
American manager in France will experience formal and impersonal relationships. French does not desire visionary and charismatic leaders that are borne of most Americans (Javidan et al., 2006, p. 79). The high power distance in France makes American executive leading a corporation in France to focus on the business rather than relationships.
Egypt’s leadership is perceived from a masculine standpoint. Thus, the American executive will typically be male. This leader should be seen to be qualified for the leadership role that he seeks to undertake. He should be ready to assume great responsibility and charge of arising issues that require discipline of members that fail to follow the rules (Javidan et al., 2006, p. 81).
Chinese culture has a distinction from its performance orientation, in-group collectivism and institutional orientation. China’s overriding business principle is based on the concept of “guan xi” that means networking. In this case, relationships are valued. Thus, the American executive must be polite, moral and have good attributes (Javidan et al., p. 83). He must be able to employ Chinese employees that have high performance orientation.
Buter et al. (2011). Rethinking Change: Downsizing businesses, changing behaviors and still managing to come out on top. Chartered Management Institute.
Butler et al. (2011) observed that many firms must take advantage of emerging markets and either downsize or close operations with the aim of reopening them in other areas to remain competitive. This is because most industries are departing from the capital-intensive investments to low capital investments to enable them to remain competitive in the market. Downsizing is an initiative by which these companies achieve cost reduction. It comes against the backdrop of major structural changes that occurred in the motor vehicle industry in Europe that saw General Motors to rethink its manufacturing capacity for large cars (p. 22). The consequence of this move led to the transfer of 1000 employees to another manufacturing plant. However, this attempt led to the close of the plant eighteen months after operation. While explaining the reasons deterioration, Butler et al. (2011) identified lack of policies or programs in employee retraining, the need to develop new skills and working for longer hours as major reasons behind deterioration. The employees that survive downsizing usually have reduced morale due to a decline in productivity and distrust in the management.
Managing corporate brand name: the people that the downsizing might affect should be told why it is done. This step involves protection of corporate name through a communication plan that would see the business run despite the change process (Butler et al., 2011, p. 25).
Managing communications: A communication strategy that informs all stakeholders about the closure should be designed to ensure that the change process is smooth.
Managing closure: This step involves developing a production output plan and hiring experts that have robust knowledge in closure management. It also involves simplifying the production process so that the surviving workers can cope with the change.
Managing investment in employees: This step involves provision of counseling services to employees and offering training opportunities for managers.
Managing continuity of operations: This step involves establishment of multi-functional team that can lead the organization to re-emerge following downsizing.
The strengths of these strategies are that employees can recover from the impact of downsizing and assume their new roles and responsibilities. This may have a positive impact on the organization’s growth. However, when the downsizing process fails to occur smoothly, employees that survive it may have a lasting negative attitude and continued distrust for the organization.
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