Major Thesis: There Are Arguments For And Against Vaccination; Congress Must Take A Stand. Research Paper
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Intended audience: Congress
The paper’s purpose: Congress should make the vaccination of the school-aged children mandatory due to the fact that the specific prevention methods are becoming increasingly important at the struggle with infectious diseases.
The article "Efficacy And Safety Of The RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine During 18 Months After Vaccination: A Phase 3 Randomized, Controlled Trial In Children And Young Infants At 11 African Sites" reports on the outcomes of the investigations of the vaccination of children who could possibly suffer from Malaria (Meñaca 9). During 18 months, the scholars investigated the following three stages of the vaccination, which proved to be effective.
The scientific article of Susan M. Kansagra "Reaching Children Never Previously Vaccinated For Influenza Through A School-Located Vaccination Program" depicted the successful consequences of the school-located vaccination program in the USA (NYC) in 2009 (Seither 293). The scholars compared the physical state of children before the vaccination against influenza, and after the vaccination accordingly.
Jeffrey Kluger in his work "Who's Afraid Of A Little Vaccine?" investigates the vaccine controversies in the USA, depicting the pros and contras of both the opponents and the adherents of vaccination.
Candace Lind in the article "How Rural And Urban Parents Describe Convenience In The Context Of School-Based Influenza Vaccination: A Qualitative Study" discusses the pros and contras of parents whose school-aged children were vaccinated against influenza. The parents stated that the vaccination would be very comfortable for them because it should possibly help to prevent the influenza epidemic among children (Lind 250).
Susana Scott’s article "Coverage And Timing Of Children's Vaccination: An Evaluation Of The Expanded Programme On Immunization In The Gambia" discovers the vaccination data by the example of children in the Gambia. This program serves as a perfect model of future vaccination of children from poor countries (Scott 3).
Ranee Seither discusses the national vaccination in the U.S. among the kindergartens in the article "Vaccination Coverage Among Children In Kindergarten -- United States, 2013-14 School Year. (Cover Story)". The experiment covers the various states in order to investigate the different reaction on the vaccines given to the pre-school-aged children.
Mini thesis for body theme one: Supporters of vaccination feel that it should be legalized because it considers that concerns of the possible epidemic within the school-aged children, and improve the health of the future generation.
Mini thesis for body theme two: Those who oppose mandatory vaccination feel it should not be legalized because of the possible danger of the injections, the alternative solutions available such as folk medicine.
Mini thesis for body theme three: Congress should pass legislation that would stop this if it acknowledged the known science stating that vaccinations do not cause the assumed serve side effects but only protect the children who receive them.
Mini thesis for conclusion: None – writing only one paragraph
Body theme 1
Basically, vaccination (from the Latin “vaccus” is a cow) or graft is the injection of antigenic material in order to induce immunity to the disease, which will prevent infection or reduce its negative consequences. Some vaccines provide immunity from the first time, while others have to enter it again. The so-called booster is an event aimed at maintaining immunity generated by previous vaccination. Typically, it is conducted a few years after the first vaccination.
Today, research centers have developed special immunization schedules. They allow a maximum protection from human disease severe and dangerous infections. If a woman is planning to become pregnant, or someone is going on a trip to an exotic country, they may require additional vaccinations. However, the question of vaccination of school children is important in our time, because children are the future of our world.
In conclusion, it should be stated that vaccination is one of the most important issues of humanity, because a man can save millions of children's lives that are now condemned to death with the help of vaccination. Research in this area causes both the scientific and public interest in the world, i.e.in this essay, the question of vaccination will be considered from all possible angles.
The Research Paper. For and Against Mandatory Vaccination of Children
There has been many controversies surrounding this issue in recent years; many parents believe that vaccination has serious side effects while others are adamant about the inoculations because of their obvious health benefits. The government has yet to step in, and the results have been dire. Parents are now allowed to negate the vaccination of their children in the majority of states, even as they enter school, under the guise that it violates their personal rights. In fact, all but two states allow this exemption, meaning all but two states leave entire classrooms of children open to contracting preventable diseases, starting epidemics, and possibly dying. Moreover, with the help of new vaccines that should be developed within the next 5-10 years, it will be possible to prevent more than 8 million children’s deaths a year (Lind 248). However, disputes over the safety of vaccination do not subside until now. Many people believe that vaccines may lead to irreparable consequences for the health of their children. Therefore, vaccination for children is essential for every child. In this essay, a question of vaccination necessity shall be examined from various viewpoints, both from the adherents and from the critics, in order to create a full-fledged feature of the current situation (Kluger 41).
In sum, the Congress is in unique situation concerning the children’s vaccination. Currently, vaccination is not always mandatory due to personal beliefs on behalf of parents. While personal beliefs are important, they cannot be put first in terms of the physical health of the entire society. Congress has the power to make vaccinations obligatory for school-aged children while also educating the misinformed on the fact that do not cause harm. Passing this legislation would put an end to unnecessary deaths, and start the health campaign that would strengthen the children’s health in every state of the US. Congress should adopt the law of the obligatory vaccination of school-aged children, because it will influence the life of the future American society.
Arguments in Favor of Mandatory Vaccination
Presently, Vaccine controversies challenged the safety and efficacy of vaccines that appeared after the development of the first vaccine (Alkoshi 776). However, as noted by World Health Organization’s experts, most vaccine controversies’ arguments are not supported by scientific evidence. In the early 21st century, there is no need to discuss the importance of immunization of infectious diseases; immunization demonstrated clearly the effectiveness by the example of dozens of years of practical application (Scott 6). It is well known that vaccination is the leading factor in reducing the disease incidence, decreasing the severity of the clinical course and reducing mortality cases, reducing the number of complications in survivors of infectious diseases among school-aged children. Such major achievements in medicine as the elimination of smallpox in the world, a significant reduction in the incidence of polio (which allowed raising the question of its liquidation), diphtheria, and measles are only possible due to the fact that it have made effective vaccine formulations against pathogens of these infections. Their application on a large scale will protect children from infection, and will help the human body to create immunity to infectious agents.
Basically, vaccination or immunization is the creation of artificial immunity to certain diseases. For this purpose, the doctors use the relatively harmless antigens, which serve as protein molecules (Scott 5). They are a part of the microorganisms that cause diseases. Microorganisms can be viruses, such as measles, or bacteria (Berhane 5). Vaccination is one of the best resources to protect the school-aged children of communicable diseases that cause serious disease before vaccination was available. Vaccines stimulate the children’s immune system response to a possible infection. The immune system then fights against infections and remembers an organism that caused it.
There was created a program for compulsory vaccination of school-aged children in order to protect the immunity of children, as well as to reduce the mortality rage. Numerous studies and practical experience have shown that practically all children with an individual approach can be vaccinated. Children with chronic illnesses are subjected to a risk of infectious diseases more than other; therefore, they must be first immunized. Each child needs an individual approach. Tuberculosis, whooping cough, diphtheria, mumps, tetanus, rubella, measles, hepatitis B, all these diseases are listed in the US immunization schedule of injections for school-aged children. The fact is that the calendar of vaccination is not mandatory, and parents can independently decide whether to vaccinate their children or not (Lind 254). Today, the Congress introduces a bill on compulsory vaccination of school-aged children from deadly diseases. Why there is a need to create a bill on compulsory vaccination? First, it is necessary in order to protect a child. By means of mandatory vaccination schedule, children can create an artificial immunity to disease that can save them from the disease itself as well as from its negative consequences. Secondly, preventive vaccination can stop the epidemic or sometimes even prevent it. Everyone knows what the influenza is. If parents want to protect their child from seasonal infections, they should make them vaccinated. However, all the charts will be observed more clearly with the introduction of the new program, which will reduce the incidence of school-aged children. The only necessity for parents will be to monitor the physical health of their children. Vaccination of children on the schedule is the most popular modern program. A large-scale campaign on television, in newspapers, hospitals appeals to make an anti-influenza vaccine, this vaccination usually takes place in early autumn before the influenza season (Kansagra 45).
Arguments against Mandatory Vaccination
However, the opponents of the mandatory vaccination of children state that not everyone is ready to consider these facts convincing, suggesting that artificial introduction of a foreign protein directly into the blood is harmful. Otherwise, people get used to call the thing that is not natural as a bad thing; it is as a purely speculative argument. One of the popular anti-vaccination arguments is that there is the intended content in some inoculations of various toxic substances, including a preservative thiomersal based on mercury. There is no evidence of systemic toxicity of the vaccine preservatives (when used in standard doses). Alleged links of thimerosal with autism also has not been confirmed. Parents are often afraid of cases of improper storage, transportation, and use of vaccines. After all, when an unvaccinated child falls ill in a “natural” way, full alien pathogens circulate in his or her blood too. Despite this, some supporters of alternative medicine do not support vaccination. Summarizing, it can be said that due to the lack of scientific evidence, some alternative exercises just turn inside out the recommendations of the official medicine. According to some advocates of human rights, the forced compulsory vaccination is contrary to the freedom of choice. The fact that doctors are forced to do something with a child is already causing an internal protest. The most powerful “legal” movement against mandatory vaccines is situated in the USA. For example, California has legalized refusal of vaccination, if the parents do not want it (Seither 295). Their opponents are willing to oppose them with good arguments in favor of mandatory vaccinations: unvaccinated person is a danger to the health of others, thereby infringing their rights already. It turns out that the problem of compulsory vaccinations is a special case of a big ethical problem: how can the freedom of the individual be restricted in order not to become a threat to society? The scholars think it is clear that in order to prevent any epidemic, there should be vaccinated a large proportion of the population.
Nevertheless, scientific data prove conclusively that vaccination causes more good than harm in general. The severe side effects are very rare among children who do not have contraindications, so to complete the recommended vaccination is much less risky than to abandon them. However, it is best to consult with your doctor about possible contraindications and the need for a vaccine in each case before going to the vaccination room. In conclusion, it can be stated that the Congress should pass the legislation of the mandatory vaccination of the school-aged children, i.e. people need to understand that the law on vaccination is aimed only at improving the quality of life, as well as to reduce the mortality rate among children. The law should pass the adoption in order to save more children’s lives and to improve the birth rate current situation in the USA.
Alkoshi, Salem, et al. "Anticipating Rotavirus Vaccines - A Pre-Vaccine Assessment Of
Incidence And Economic Burden Of Rotavirus Hospitalizations Among Children - 5 Year Of Age In Libya, 2012-13." BMC Public Health 15.1 (2015): 770-782.
Berhane, Yemane, et al. "Children Who Received PCV-10 Vaccine From A Two-Dose Vial
Without Preservative Are Not More Likely To Develop Injection Site Abscess Compared With Those Who Received Pentavalent (DPT-Hepb-Hib) Vaccine: A Longitudinal Multi-Site Study." Plos ONE 9.6 (2014): 1-7.
"Efficacy And Safety Of The RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine During 18 Months After Vaccination:
A Phase 3 Randomized, Controlled Trial In Children And Young Infants At 11 African Sites." Plos Medicine 11.7 (2014): 1-24.
Kansagra, Susan M., et al. "Reaching Children Never Previously Vaccinated For Influenza
Through A School-Located Vaccination Program." American Journal Of Public Health 104.1 (2014): e45-e49.
Kluger, Jeffrey. "Who's Afraid Of A Little Vaccine?" Time 184.13 (2014): 40-43.
Lind, Candace, et al. "How Rural And Urban Parents Describe Convenience In The Context Of
Meñaca, Arantza, et al. "Factors Likely To Affect Community Acceptance Of A Malaria
Vaccine In Two Districts Of Ghana: A Qualitative Study." Plos ONE 9.10 (2014): 1-12.
Scott, Susana, et al. "Coverage And Timing Of Children's Vaccination: An Evaluation Of The
Expanded Programme On Immunisation In The Gambia." Plos ONE 9.9 (2014): 1-9.
Seither, Ranee, et al. "Vaccination Coverage Among Children In Kindergarten -- United States,
2013-14 School Year. (Cover Story)." MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 63.41 (2014): 913-920.
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