Racial Discrimination Of African Americans Essay Example
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The level of racial discrimination in America cannot be compared to that of another country. Racial discrimination against African Americans, blacks is a subject that has received strong criticism and heated debates from whites and scholars about the reality in segregation. The enactment of the civil right act of 1964 and other bills of rights sought to end slavery and segregation of the blacks. According to some scholars, segregation against African Americans ended and even reserved to some extent. However, African Americans continue with the fight and claim that they are being discriminated by whites. This paper seeks to conduct an analysis that substantiates the two views in the contemporary America. Categorically, the paper seeks to prove that racial discrimination in America has taken a different course on socio-economic status.
Racial discrimination is a zero sum game
In their work, Norton and Sommers (1) have come out strongly asserting that African Americans should not lament or claim to be discriminated by white. They add that segregation against white people has been on a decline and currently, the stigmatized African Americans have taken a different course of discriminating against whites. According to the authors, reverse racial discrimination came into practice in 1970, but has been aggravated since President Obama took leadership of America. Despite these convincing views, blacks are still adamant that they are discriminated; various institutions report that discrimination against African Americans continues to rein America.
Currently, whites consider that increased equalities between them and Blacks is reverse racism or prejudice against them. However, any move to improve socio-economic and political welfare of the minority groups is considered a racial initiative. For instance, when African Americans secure employment opportunities, acquire property and knowledge relative to whites, the latter consider it as prejudicial. Whites continue stating that racial discrimination against blacks is a battle they have been fighting for some time and currently, they are losing it to their opponents. African Americans do not consider favors from whites as winning the battle against oppression instead; they consider it as a fair situation that must prevail.
Apart from illegal Africans who enter America in search for jobs, Africa American citizens are not exposed to a fair chance as Native Americans in terms of job opportunities. Although Onyelere and Belton (539) observe that coming from a developed home dictates one ability to engage in self-employment, their claims are refuted by Thurler (1) who postulate that everyone including whites and Blacks have equal chances of prosperity regardless of their background. He goes ahead noting that, blacks, whites have always been given equal opportunities socio-economically, and that whites do not discriminate against blacks. Thurler (1) supports his point by noting that each side is bias against the other and the outcome of their bias nature leads to a zero-sum game where both win or both lose. For instance, if whites discriminate against blacks especially in the job markets because their original home country is conceived to be primitive, then whites will not get means of production in terms of low and middle class employees to operate and manage firms.
It has been observed that most companies are reluctant to employ African Americans because some consider them as not competent, arrogant, or violent people who like protesting. Even though in 2000, an analysis conducted on Microsoft Corporation revealed that the firm had employed 544 workers of African descent and more than 20,000 white workers (Fernandes and Hadi Q Alsaeed 59), the truth according to Norton and Sommers (2) is that firms want to achieve competitive value by employing skilled and competent personnel regardless of color. Thurler (1) conducted a study in Tuff University to establish whether segregation against blacks is still practiced, he samples 209 and 208 blacks and whites, and in his findings, he established that over the last six decades, discrimination against blacks has decreased. Based on his findings, he refutes claims that discrimination against blacks in still practiced out rightly. Nevertheless, in 2013, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that African Americans account for 11.3% while Native Americans accounted for only 5.3% of the unemployed persons in America. Such a socio-economic situation affected economic development of states or regions populated by African Americans. Norton and Sommer (217) does not refute statistical evident about racial disparities, but he instead notes that the outcome or evidence of racial discrimination against African Americans will be showcased in the long run because it takes generation to reduce the rates of illiteracy, secure jobs, and improve socio-economically. Essentially, blacks are still building a foundation that will support their move for equality against whites.
According to the department of Housing and Urban Development, Native Americans had more access to financial requirement that enabled them to own houses. The institution asserts that 72% of the middle class whites owned homes as opposed to 47% of African Americans in the same socio-economic level. It should be noted that this are fruits of past periods when racial discrimination against blacks was high. Currently, African Americans just like whites receive support from the Equal opportunity Employment commission, which fight on their behalf in courts and in the job market. In effect, African Americans have equal opportunities as whites to own homes or any property especially when they are at the same income position as whites. It is important to note that both blacks and white occupy the slums even though the majority are blacks, it is attributed to the fact that historical socio-economic impact affect them and that they will take time to alleviate themselves from it. Therefore, Blacks have to suffer at the expense of whites for the zero-sum game to be sustained.
The recent changes in the American political leadership brought a new dawn to African Americans, a move that was taken negatively by the majority of whites. Native white Americans do not have hope and trust in African Americans (Nunnally 85). To them, any black who came to America originated from a developing nation and as such has no capabilities, intelligence, and power to influence politics in the country. However, the presidency has been advising the judiciary to adjudicate against reverse racism, as a way to equalize the fight on racism. Notably, Ricci v. DiStefano, Fisher v. University of Texas are some of the cases that were ruled against whites on equal employment and enrolment opportunities to the University respectively. It is from such moves that the white community alleges that the fight against racism has taken a different course. The court rulings seek to ensure that both sides win and in tight situations, both sides have to lose. Although most media such as CNN and New York Times referred to it as “moves by whites to settle political and socio-economic discourses,” it seeks to ensure equal distribution of resources, but one group has to lose as the other one wins. Although Butler and Broockman (13) explain that political, inequality has increased especially against the Blacks, with some of the white legislators treating inhumanly. Norton and Sommer (216) says that some of the cases of racial discrimination are isolated and should not be used to support that black suffer at the expense of whites.
White legislators form the majority of lawmakers, in the 112th congress, there are, 361 and 44 whites and blacks in the U.S. house respectively, while there is 96 whites and none black in the house of senate; the majority enacted various laws that regulate the democratic processes and hence the socio-economic status of citizens (Butler and Broockman 13). For instance, it is a requirement that a voter should be an approved taxpayer, and that a prisoner has not right to vote. The legal provisions affect both the blacks and whites communities in the society although, whites form the majority, and as such, they win the battle of practicing racism against blacks to influence their socio-economic status negatively. Even though most of the whites voted for president Obama, some of the policies that favored them at the expense of blacks attracted them. For instance, taxes were going to be reduced, a quota will be put to regulate immigration, and employment opportunities will be increased (knowing that they are educated than blacks and therefore will benefit more). The impacts of such legal provisions match with the sentiments of Norton and Sommer (215) who state that racism is a zero sum game and that any move to discriminate a group ends up affecting the other group. Ultimately, a group has to win as the other one loses and in this case, most minorities suffer at the mercies of the majority.
Concisely, it is evident that segregation of blacks has reduced despite the moves by some black groups. However, whites consider the move by institutions to ensure equality between them and blacks as reverse racism. From the works of Norton and Sommer, racism is a zero sum game whereby one group wins as the other group loses. The authors agree that racial disparities still exists in socio-economic realms because blacks still suffer the historical impact of racial segregation. Even though it has reduced, it will take time for the blacks to realize full equality with whites. Thurler (1) who observe that white’s agitation over equality with blacks should not be considered as reverse racism echoes sentiments of Norton and Sommer. Nevertheless, Onyelere and Belton (539) present their work suggesting that racial discrimination against the blacks is not yet close to ending. The authors use statistical evidence from various institutions such as U.S. Labor statistics, department of Housing and Urban development, and legal provisions such as those explaining the requirement of voting in America to support their claims. As a way of ending racism against blacks, the American president advised the judiciary to adjudicate in favor of reverse racism. Notably, employment and university enrolment cases against blacks have been ruled in their favor to send a message to the whites that racism is ending. Socio-economically, African Americans status is improving as they gain support from the whites. The wake of modernity has helped reduce the rate at which whites discriminated against blacks in the American society.
Butler, Daniel, and David Broockman. "Do Politicians Racially Discriminate Against Constituents? A Field Experiment on State Legislators." American Journal of Political Science, 0.0 (2011): 1-15. Print.
Fernandes, Lilly, and Nora Hadi Q Alsaeed. "African Americans and Workplace Discrimination." European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies 2.2 (2014): 56-76. Print.
Nunnally, Shayla C. Trust in Black America Race, Discrimination, and Politics. New York: New York UP, 2012. Print.
Oyelere, Ruth, and Belton Willie. "Coming to America: Does Having a Developed Home Country Matter for Self-Employment in the United States?" American Economic Review: Paper and Proceedings 102.3 (2012): 538–542. Print.
Thurler, Kim. "Whites Believe They Are Victims of Racism More Often Than Blacks." Tufts Now. Tuff University, 22 May 2011. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.
Norton, Michael, and Samuel Sommers. "Whites See Racism as a Zero-Sum Game That They Are Now Losing." Perspectives on Psychological Science 6.3 (2011): 215-18. Print.
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