Report On Measurement & Evaluation For Sport & Exercise Physiology

Type of paper: Report

Topic: Health, Actions, Sports, Wellness, Cardiology, Fitness, Activity, Aliens

Pages: 7

Words: 1925

Published: 2021/03/19

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Abstract

Physical action is a vital part of everyday life. So as to assess the physical fitness of the male and female understudies, there are a few routines to gauge VO2 max. Maximal aerobic power is generally acknowledged as the best measure of the cardiovascular frameworks' practical points of confinement and has been demonstrated to envisage mortality from all aspects in healthy as well as unhealthy people.

Participants

This study involves 167 volunteers. Out of 167 participants, 133 are males. This represents 79.6% of the overall participants. On the other hand, out of 167 participants, 34 are females. This represents 20.4% of the overall participants.

Research Design

This activity makes use of a validated prediction equation developed by Jackson et al. (1990) to predict maximum aerobic capacity. Another method of measuring cardiorespiratory fitness is the 12-minute Cooper Test.

Results

There is a positive correlation between the NASA predictive equation and the 12-minute Cooper Test.

INTRODUCTION

Physical action is a vital part of everyday life. So as to assess the physical fitness of the male and female understudies, there are a few routines to gauge VO2 max. There is considerable number of tests grown in numerous years for measuring the most extreme oxygen utilization. Direct estimation of most extreme oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is perceived as the best single list of vigorous wellness (Astrand & Rodhal 2003), yet that way is not generally conceivable because of both costly and requires advanced instrument and prepared staffs. Direct estimation of most extreme oxygen utilization is not generally functional in a few circumstances, including fitness testing or testing in a bigger population. Along these lines, aberrant routines are suitably utilized for deciding VO2 max. The aberrant field tests do not oblige exceptional hardware or conditions. They are extremely easy to perform and it is conceivable to do the test in a bigger number of participants at one time. Despite the fact that the circuitous tests are not as exact as immediate measures yet at the same time, they are considered as worthy indicators of VO2 max (Chatterjee et al. 2004).
Maximal aerobic power is generally acknowledged as the best measure of the cardiovascular frameworks' practical points of confinement (Hamlin et al. 2012; Schaub & Kern 1999) and has been demonstrated to envisage mortality from all aspects in healthy as well as unhealthy people (Hamlin et al. 2012). Exact and dependable estimation of maximal oxygen consuming fitness is therefore fundamental for healthy and unhealthy people if the outcomes are to be utilized as a part of any wellbeing screening methodology. Numerous methods of aerobic fitness generally use sub‐maximal activity tests which utilize algorithms to anticipate maximal aerobic fitness.

What is VO2max?

The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) test was initially institutionalized by Taylor and partners in 1955 (Hamlin et al. 2012) when these scientists utilized an intermittent protocol to continuously expand work rate over several days. Taylor et al. (1955) instructed the participants to run for 3 minutes on a treadmill at a velocity of 7 mph. Over several days, the treadmill evaluation was progressively expanded by 2.5% until the augmentation in oxygen uptake was under 150 ml/minutes or the so-called plateau level reflecting VO2max (Hamlin et al. 2012). Subsequently Hamlin et al. (2012) found that a nonstop test, utilizing 2‐minute augmentations of work rate starting at 90‐100% anticipated VO2max, had the capacity produce comparative VO2max values.

Measuring Cardiovascular Fitness

The production of rules for activity testing by the American College of Sports Medicine in 1975 has in a few routes served to institutionalize testing systems (American College of Sports Medication, 1975), however confounded VO2max testing conventions kept on developing (Hamlin et al. 2012). The American College of Sports Medicine characterizes cardiovascular wellness as the limit of the body to assimilate, convey and use oxygen amid activity or when doing vigorous exercises (Dale 2013). Cardiovascular wellness is the completed aftereffect of the heart, muscles, lungs, and blood working simultaneously while performing an action (Dale 2013). There are different approaches to gauge cardiovascular wellness. The standard of estimation for cardiovascular wellness is VO2 max or the maximum measure of oxygen an individual can take by means of the lungs, and convey in the diverse parts of the body through the veins and the heart and afterward use by the muscles (Dale 2013).
As indicated by Dale (2013), cardiovascular wellness can be assessed through the utilization of a progression of tests, for example, venture up tests, treadmill tests, paddling and cycling tests. Different segments, including oxygen consuming continuance, are incorporated in cardiovascular wellness (Greenhaff 1989). A maximal treadmill test is the best system of deciding cardiovascular wellness. By social event and inspecting terminated air all through the test, VO2 max can be specifically measured (Cdc.gov 2005). This manifestation of appraisal is performed in a clinical circumstance and is massively excessive and lengthy. Then again, a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is distinctively utilized when performing a maximal test (Cdc.gov 2005). Hence, maximal treadmill appraisal can be utilized to distinguish coronary illness and cardiovascular arrhythmias incited by anxiety (Cdc.gov 2005).
In surveying the cardiorespiratory wellness of the individual, it is imperative to consider the individual's body mass file and its VO2 max (Kokkinos 2014; Shepard 2012). Body mass list is the by and large utilized gage of weight estimation (Rosenberg, 2015). The estimation of body mass file is somewhere around 18.5 and 24.9 for an ordinary weight (Rosenberg, 2015). Then again, a body mass record more noteworthy than 25 demonstrates being overweight. If the body mass record goes past 30 that implies that the individual is viewed as corpulent (Rosenberg, 2015). High estimation of body mass record estimations have been related with diminished phases of physical wellness, for example, diminished VO2 max.VO2 max is additionally a trustworthy measure for appraisal of an individual's cardiorespiratory wellness (Shephard 2012). Such system is just connected while doing certain activity and is directed through the utilization of an examining test or examination of air lapsed and the ventilation estimation. Basic activity components used in measuring cardiovascular wellness incorporate running and strolling, treadmill, or cycle ergometry (Wilkinson & Church 2001).

How to Assess VO2max

VO2max can be assessed utilizing immediate or aberrant procedures (Jurca et al. 2005, p. 185). Direct measures offer the most precise assessment of cardiorespiratory wellness and are obtained by ventilatory gas examination at maximal exertion amid a grouped workout ergometry test (Kokkinos 2014). Roundabout methodologies evaluate VO2max from longest practice length of time, heart rate reactions, or the top workload accomplished amid maximal or submaximal activity ergometry, or the amount of time expected to run, walk, or run an expressed separation (Jurca et al. 2005, p. 185). In any case, both roundabout and direct methodologies of assessing cardiorespiratory wellness may be preposterous for altered use much of the time.
A worldwide gathering of authorities in the parts of physical movement and wellness valuation, preventive drug, the study of disease transmission, and also clinical activity investigation concentrated on the exactness and suitability of a scope of methodologies that may be used to figure cardiorespiratory wellness in human services settings (Jurca et al. 2005, p. 185). The analysts inferred that the assumption of cardiorespiratory wellness from non–exercise examination relapse models was most suitable for far reaching use in a few human services circumstances if enough legitimacy was obtained with this method of evaluation. What is more, non–exercise appraisal models evaluate VO2max from the relapse of maximal oxygen uptake measured on free variables perceived to be prognostic of cardiorespiratory wellness, including body size, age, sexual orientation, resting HR, and self-reported standard levels of physical action (Shephard 2012; Jurca et al. 2005, p. 185). This strategy avoids the issue of activity evaluation, while offering a sensibly exact valuation of cardiorespiratory wellness.

SUBMAXIMAL TESTING

The Cooper 12-Minute Test is utilized to gauge cardiorespiratory wellness. The object of the test is to cover as extraordinary a separation as could reasonably be expected in the apportioned time. The participants' level of inspiration and pacing can have a significant impact of the outcomes picked up from this test, and as it is a maximal field test it is wrong for a few populaces. All participants ensured that they thoroughly warmed-up to reduce the chances of any injury occurring before beginning the test. Participants attempted to cover the longest possible distance in the allotted 12-minutes. Walking was permitted, but it was more preferable to run. At the end of the allocated 12-minutes the distance the participants achieved was marked with a cone, then measured and recorded. When the test was completed, the participants continued to walk or jog slowly for 3 to 5 minutes to aid cooling-down and prevent the venous pooling of blood. The equation o2max (ml.kg.min-1) = 35.97 (miles) – 11.29 was used for all participants.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This paper seeks to make a comparison between the NASA predictive equation and the Cooper 12-minute test.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Is there a statistically significant relationship between VO2 max scores obtained from the NASA predictive equation and the Cooper 12-minute test?

METHODS

Participants
This study involves 167 volunteers. Out of 167 participants, 133 are males. This represents 79.6% of the overall participants. On the other hand, out of 167 participants, 34 are females. The mean age for the participants is 20±2 years. The average body mass for males is 24.52 ± 3.53 kg while that of females in 22.80 ± 2.39 kg.
Research Design

Data Collection

Data collection was performed at Leeds Becket University for three weeks. The participants were grouped accordingly and evaluated simultaneously on the same day for each day for the whole data collection period. The participants were not allowed to take part in the activity if they were ill or injured.
Prior to the start of the study, the participants were sent a letter of consent. A special physical screening was also conducted before the exercises. The screening happened in normal environment settings between 9 in the morning until 6 in the afternoon.

Anthropometric Measurements

Measurements of stature and body were conducted before the activity. Participants were clothed and wore their shoes. The stature of the participants was evaluated during the process of inspiration and was rounded off to the nearest 1 cm.

Hemodynamic Parameters

Measurement of blood pressure was done through the use of a mercury sphygmomanometer (Accoson, MK.#, England), stethoscope (Spirit, England) and cuff. The participants were in a sitting position. The left arm was at the same level with the heart. In taking the blood pressure, the apparatus was wrapped around the upper arm in line with the brachial artery.

Indirect non-exercising prediction of VO2max

This activity makes use of a validated prediction equation developed by Jackson et al. (1990) to predict maximum aerobic capacity. There are two gender specific prediction equations utilized in the study.
Male: o2max = 67.350 + 1.921(PA-R) – 0.381(Age) – 0.754(BMI)
Female: o2max = 56.363 + 1.921(PA-R) – 0.381(Age) – 0.754(BMI)
The BMI (Body Mass Index) is utilized to evaluate the weight in relation to height and is computed by dividing body weight in kilograms by height in meters squared (kg / m2). PA-R in the equation represents the NASA/Johnson Space Centre physical activity scale (Jackson et al. 1990). In predicting the NASA JSC Physical Activity, it is critical that participants accurately and truthfully report their current level of physical activity. Over or under-estimating how much activity participants participate in effects the prediction of maximum oxygen uptake.

Twelve –Minute Cooper Test

The Cooper test transpired on a 400m track in which participants were told to cover the maximum distance over the 12-minute test period. The participants wore a Polar Heart Rate Monitor (polar, T61, Finland). Following the 12-minute period, participants were instructed to stay active for 3-5 minutes to facilitate in the recovery, thus, avoiding venous pooling of blood. VO2max was projected through the use of the following formula.
VO2maxmL.kg-1min-1=35.97 (distance covered in miles)-11.29

Statistical Analyses

Statistical analyses were conducted through the use of the IBM SPSS for windows (SPSS for windows; version 21.0, 2012). Significance for the tests performed was applied at p ≤ 0.05 levels. The data gathered were stated as mean values and standard deviation (±SD). Recognizing normality was performed through the use of the Kolmogorov-Smirnoff test for normality (p>0.05).

The explanation of the results was grounded on the following table

Results
The participants’ physiognomies are reported in Table 1. The Table 3 shows the mean values as well as standard deviations of the VO2max acquired by the predictive VO2max equation, incremental Treadmill Test as well as Cooper test. The T-test signifies the mean values of VO2max suggesting that the mean value must not be significantly greater than (p≥0.05) compared to the estimated or measured VO2max.

Correlation Analysis

Measured Value versus Predicted Value
Figure 1: Predicted Measure vs. Measured Value VO2max
It can be seen from Figure 1 that the correlation co-efficient for the predicted measure of VO2max and the measured VO2max values. The r value is 0.5119. This mirrors a moderately positive strong correlation ( r=0.5119, n=167).

12-Minute Cooper Test vs. Jackson Predictive Equation

Figure 2: Weak (n=167, r=0.3146) Correlation between VO2max scores attained from 12-minute Cooper test and Jackson predictive Equation (p≤0.05)

Modified Incremental SRT vs. Jackson Predictive Equation

The regression analysis was performed to identify the correlation coefficient for the projected measure of VO2max and measured VO2max
Figure 3: Moderate Positive (n=167, r=0.4087) Correlation between VO2max scores attained from Modified Incremental SRT and Jackson predictive Equation (p≤0.05)

Significance Tests

Limitations and Conclusion
The limitations of this study lies on the fact that in doing the Cooper 12-minute test, 14 participants were not able to participate. However, this is only a small number of the overall participants. In addition, there is a big difference in the total number of male participants who took part in the activities compared to the female participants. Another limitation is the difference in the way the Cooper 12-minute test was performed. Some participants were allowed to walk. The results of the study showed a positive correlation between the NASA JSC prediction and the Cooper 12-minute test.

References

Astrand, P.O., Rodahl, K., Dahl, H. & Stromme, S. (2003). Evaluation of physical performance on the basis of tests. Textbook of Work Physiology: Physiological Bases of Exercise. 4th ed. New York: McGraw Hill.
Cdc.gov, (2005). Cardiovascular Fitness Procedures Manual. National Health and Nutrition Examination.
Chatterjee, S., Chatterjee, P., Mukherjee, P.S. & Bandyopadhyay. A. (2004). Validity of Queen’s college step test for use with young Indian men. Brit J Sport Med, 38, pp.289-291
Cooper, K. H. (1968). A means of assessing maximal oxygen intake: Correlation between field and treadmill testing. Journal of the American Medical Association 230 (3): 201-204.
Dale, P. (2013). What Does Cardiovascular Fitness Mean? | LIVESTRONG.COM. [online] Livestrong.com. Available at: http://www.livestrong.com/article/286610-what-does-cardiovascular-fitness-mean/ [Accessed 11 Apr. 2015].
Greenhaff, P. (1989). Cardiovascular fitness and thermoregulation during prolonged exercise in man. British Journal Of Sports Medicine, 23(2), 109-114. doi:10.1136/bjsm.23.2.109
Hamlin, M., Draper, N., Blackwell, G., Shearman, J., & Kimber, N. (2012). Determination of Maximal Oxygen Uptake Using the Bruce or a Novel Athlete-Led Protocol in a Mixed Population. Journal Of Human Kinetics, 31(-1). doi:10.2478/v10078-012-0010-z
Jackson, A S. et al. (1990) 'Prediction Of Functional Aerobic Capacity Without Exercise Testing'. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 22.6: 863. Web.
Jurca, R., Jackson, A., LaMonte, M., Morrow, J., Blair, S., Wareham, N., Haskell, W., van Mechelen, W., Church, T., Jakicic, J. and Laukkanen, R. (2005). Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness Without Performing Exercise Testing. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 29(3), pp.185-193.
Kokkinos, P. (2014). Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Exercise, and Blood Pressure. Hypertension, 64(6), 1160-1164. doi:10.1161/hypertensionaha.114.03616
Rosenberg, W. (2015). How Does BMI Affect VO2 Max? | LIVESTRONG.COM. LIVESTRONG.COM. Retrieved 11 April 2015, from http://www.livestrong.com/article/356265-how-does-bmi-affect-vo2-max/
Schaub, V., & Kern, M. (1999). CHANGES IN CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS PARAMETERS WITH DIETING. Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise, 31(Supplement), S183. doi:10.1097/00005768-199905001-00815
Shephard, R. (2012). Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Classification of Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Mortality.Yearbook Of Sports Medicine, 2012, 233-235. doi:10.1016/j.yspm.2011.08.035
Wilkinson, W., & Church, T. (2001). FITNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD) RISK IN OBESITY. Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise, 33(5), S5. doi:10.1097/00005768-200105001-00025

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