Russian Culture: Reaction Paper 12 Essays Examples
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Ancient Russian people considered an aesthetic criterion for their choice of faith: they were, above all struck by the beauty of the Byzantine church ceremony, the beauty of life, the church and singing. Kievan Prince Vladimir thought about the need to take some monotheistic religion and inherently strengthen the power of the state. This was all the more necessary because such religions were adopted in the states around him. Vladimir was also looking for a religion capable of supporting state power. It was a powerful religious nation waging a successful policy in the East and in the West and in the Balkans. The power of the Byzantine emperor was almost unlimited, and it is linked with the Greek Church. In addition, the church, unlike the Roman version, was, in fact, included in the national system and completely dependent on the emperor.
So in 988 in Russia under Vladimir I as a state religion Christianity was adopted. First of all, the new religion claimed to change the outlook of the people, their perception of the whole of life, and hence notions of beauty, artistic, aesthetic were changed.
The adoption of Christianity strengthened state power and territorial unity of Kievan Rus. Its great international importance lies in the fact that Russia, rejecting "primitive" paganism, now became equal to other Christian countries. Finally, the adoption of Christianity played a major role in the development of Russian culture has been influenced by the Byzantine history and culture.
The phenomenon of culture of Kievan Rus had the following characteristics and features:
The dominant influence of Christianity on the development of material and spiritual culture. The church became a kind of center where organically synthesized works of artists of different cultures - architecture, painting, music, sculpture, literature. As Orthodox religion was placed at the service of the state, culture had to serve the church, as evidenced by the absolute dominance in the art of biblical scenes in literature - religious issues in architecture - houses of worship. In the IX-th century church is becoming one of the most affordable places to meet the aesthetic needs of people.
Borrowing and creative rethinking of Byzantine tradition, knowledge and canons. Christianity, giving impetus constituent and cultural processes in Russia, contributed to the spread of Byzantine influence in different spheres of social life and culture. During this period, Old Russian literature is developing within the Byzantine canons that define genres (chronic, sermons, teachings). Iconography differs static and abstract. In architecture becoming more common Byzantine style, technique of masonry, created frescoes and mosaics.
The phenomenon of ancient culture is a kind of synthesis of local traditions and achievements of the neighboring nations of East and West.
The existence of own written language and education is a basic feature of civilized people. Already in the times of Vladimir and Yaroslav the Wise school education was an important sphere of state and church policy. The library was created in churches, monasteries and palaces of princes.
The distinctive literary genre of the time was chronicle.
Inexhaustible sources of historical knowledge, there are almost 1,500 chronicles. Among them are original monuments of ancient literature as the "Sermon on Law and Grace" Metropolitan Hilarion, "Instructions for Children" Vladimir Monomakh, early Old Rus encyclopedia "Izbornik" (1073), "The Word of Igor's Campaign". These works were not only testing different literary genres, but show the development of political culture, public opinion because almost of them touched the important issue of state building- relations between secular and church authorities.
Under the influence of Christianity new trends appeared in monumental religious architecture. In the early period of the construction of temples the Byzantine tradition is dominated. For example - Tithe church in Kiev (X c.), Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernihiv (1031-1036). And in constructed in 1037 Sophia Cathedral, appear Slavic tradition. Frescoes and mosaics are widely used in the construction of the church. Mosaic composition of the St. Sophia Cathedral made of smalt, whose range includes 177 color cast on golden background.
Convincing evidence of the culture of Russia is a dynamic growing number of cities. They were centers of concentration of social life, served as the political and economic centers, but also become a kind of laboratory where local traditions and achievements of international experience synthesized original Russian culture.
Thus, characteristic features and peculiarities of culture of Russia were: dominant influence of the Christian religion; borrowing and creative rethinking Byzantine tradition, knowledge and canons.
Hamant, Yves. The Christianization of Ancient Russia: A Millennium, 988-1988. Paris, France: UNESCO, 1992. Print.
Likhachev, Dmitrii. Further Remarks on the Problem of Old Russian Culture. Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies, 1963. Print.
Massie, Suzanne. Land of the Firebird: The Beauty of Old Russia. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1980. Print.
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