Scie210 Unit 3 Individual Project Essay
In your own words, describe the laws of thermodynamics.
First law of thermodynamics states that the total amount of energy is always conserved, and it can be only transformed into different forms.
Second law of thermodynamics states that the unavailable amount of energy of an isolated system either increases or remains constant over time.
Explain how these scientific laws apply to energy use, energy conversions, and the need for energy efficiency. Heat engines enable the heat energy to be transformed into kinetic energy through a medium of fuel. According to the first law of thermodynamics the engines convert heat energy to an equal amount of kinetic energy. But, in reality no engines can convert the entire heat supplied and derive equal kinetic energy, because some of the energy is always lost. According to the second law of thermodynamics the energy has quality as well as quantity, and performance of an energy system is dependent on its energy efficiency.
Energy efficiency is very important for the assessment of energy conversion, and improved energy efficiency has great potential from economic as well as environmental point of view.
Describe the pros and cons of the following energy types, writing 1 paragraph for each:Fossil fuel: Oil, natural gas, and coal:
Pros: Fossil fuels are cheaper source of energy.
Cons: CO₂ is emitted in the atmosphere from burning of fossil fuels, which is mainly responsible for the current global warming.Nuclear energy:
Pros: Nuclear energy is energy efficient and clean source of energy.
Cons: Waste product of nuclear energy has radiation risk.Solar energy:
Pros: Solar energy is very effective for providing electrification to remote locations.
Cons: Generation of electricity from solar energy is dependent on the availability of sunlight.Wind power:
Pros: Wind power is green energy source.
Cons: Generation of electricity from wind power is dependent on uniform wind speed.Water (hydro) power:
Pros: No waste product is generated in the process of electricity generation unlike the nuclear or the fossil fuel fired plants.
Cons: Require constant water flow to generate electricity. Bioconversion (bio-fuel):
Pros: Bio-fuels produce comparatively less greenhouse gases than the fossil fuels.
Cons: Increasing bio-energy crop cultivation may reduce the agricultural area for food production. (Conca, J., 2014) Research and describe 2 provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.The provisions of E P Act of 2005, highlights the use of alternative fuels, alternative fuel vehicles (AFV), infrastructure development to improve the air quality, fuel efficiency etc.
Section 1345, provides $ 0.10 tax credit for each gallon of bio-diesel produced by the small producers (annual production capacity <. 60 million gallons).
Section 1347, changes the definition of a small ethanol producer to an annual production capacity up to 60 million gallons, as opposed to 30 million gallons. (Energy Policy Act of 2005., 2014)
Describe each provision, and provide your opinion about how each provision helps the United States meet energy use goals. In section 1345, the approach to provide tax-credit will economically benefit the small scale bio-diesel producers. Enhancement of the production capacity limit under section 1347 will make more ethanol producers eligible for tax incentives. So, the both the sections of EP Act 2005 will be beneficial for a large number of bio-fuel producers, which will ultimately encourage the production growth of bio-fuels and will help the U.S. to meet the energy use goal.
Conca, J. (2014, April 20). It's Final -- Corn Ethanol Is Of No Use. Retrieved April 8, 2015, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesconca/2014/04/20/its-final-corn-ethanol-is-of-no-use/.
Energy Policy Act of 2005. (2014, April 6). Retrieved April 8, 2015, from http://www.afdc.energy.gov/laws/epact_2005.
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