Self-Initiated Expatriate And Assigned Expatriate Research Paper Example
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The current competition and unending search for jobs has led to several creative ways of livelihood. The world has been globalized by technology, and this has increased the demand for work mobility as well as flexibility. Most of the people with good skill try to look for better jobs in other countries. Most of these individuals are self-motivated while the others are sent by their respective companies. Self-initiated expatriates are individuals who choose to go out of their respective countries to seek better employment in other countries. Most of these individuals rate their worth above their current rank and try to find places with better pay. Assigned expatriates are the ones who are sent to their respective countries to perform a particular purpose. Companies have noticed the need for a worldwide competition and the importance of identifying their weaknesses. These companies tend to send some of their employees to different parts of the world to extend their influence (Hutchings & Murray, 2002).
In several countries today, there is a shortage of talents and the demand for very flexible employees is increasing. The salience of having divergent employees who can work under any conditions with any change of environment is noticed in the kind of outcome that their trips bear. The self-initiated expatriates seek better services from themselves, and their decision to go out of their countries is based on their own choices. They take the risk to live out, and they make their individual arrangements. Assigned expatriates are taken by their companies, and all their expenses are taken care of. The different choices of survival are both beneficial. The study focuses on the better option between the self-initiated expatriates or the company assigned ones (Fang, Jiang, Makino, & Beamish, 2010).
Having an international career is one of the most prestigious things that many citizens want. The chances of having this kind of a career are based on the ability to work toward it. Self-initiated expatriates have the pride in developing their international career from scratch to the point of their goal. Assigned expatriates are sent on missions without having a proper plan for their goals. This creates the difference between the intentions of the two groups since they have different reasons for seeking international services. The self-initiated expatriates are more likely to succeed in their international quest since they tend to work hard toward achieving their goals. The happiness of having the international job and starting from zero to the maximum point comes with the success of hard work. With respect to possibilities of ease in development, the self-initiated expatriates are more likely to make their dreams possible compared to the assigned counterparts. Pride comes after a period of hard work. The self-motivated expatriates can easily achieve their goals since that is their main target. The chances of the assigned expatriates to accomplish as much target within the same period are lower since they do not do what is their own (Froese & Peltokorpi, 2012).
Self-initiated expatriates work harder to achieve their goals. The most apparent reason is that they have nothing at hand when trying to seek their goals and would not love to be a burden to someone else. The rate at which the self-initiated expatriates work is higher than their assigned counterparts because of their life conditions. The assigned counterparts are provided with everything by the companies that they represent, and this leads to an automatic laxity. For a quick success, the laxity that comes with the assignment could be a stumbling block. The SIEs get quicker success not because they have to but because they have no choice. Life conditions in their quest can force them to work harder and this results in their success. The assigned expatriates can equally succeed in their quest if they dedicate their time. The challenge with this dedication is that their lives are a bit comfortable, and the chances of dedication are slim to nil (Biemann & Andresen, 2010).
Businesses conducted by Multinational companies are so specific to their products and their results so strict. They need a full-time-based employee who can deliver on their specific products. Most companies have specific targets that they must beat, and these targets are the reasons they send people to other countries. There is no free time left for personal commitment since they are employed on a full-time basis. Risking doing other things would reduce the time for attending to the other services by the countries, and this is a disadvantage to them. On the other hand, the self-initiated expatriates have all the times for their personal commitments and, therefore, can handle anything that comes their way. The availability of time is a major factor that differentiates the success capability of the SIEs and the assigned expatriates. The little available time can be planned depending on the mission of the work. Most multinational companies tend to overlook other factors like time when sending their employees out on certain services, and this reduces their individual chances of growth (Cerdin & Le Pargneux, 2010).
There is a difference in motivation when the quest to go abroad arises. The self-initiated expatriates work on their self-motivation and their urge to attain whatever goal they want. Self-motivation is a major factor in the success of an individual. The reasons, why they would want to go out of their countries, are within them, and they understand best what they want. Self-motivation drives their interests and helps them push towards their goal much harder. The assigned expatriates lack self-motivation, and this reduces their chances of attaining what their counterparts can attain. Some of the assigned expatriates are sent against their wishes, and the result of their work may not be desirable. The lack of self-motivation in assigned expatriates affects their capability of having other agendas since they never planned for them. Self-initiated expatriates have their time well planned before leaving their countries with a clear agenda of what to do while in abroad. The difference in their thoughts and preparedness makes a relatively noticeable difference in the likelihood of success (Froese & Peltokorpi, 2012).
In several cases, the SIEs go to different countries to attain professional experience. Having the capability of understanding different operations in a couple of fields helps in gaining the relevant experience that would help in survival in the host countries. When these ideas are brought back to the individual countries, the chances that they will fetch, higher markets are so high. The motivation of having individual experience can be easy when the individuals understand the reasons they are leaving the country (Shen & Kram, 2011). The Self-initiated expatriates are more likely to learn several things in an equal span of time since they are not glued to a specific operation. The experience that the SIEs might gain can help them to understand diverse field, and this expands their knowledge. Tending to know why things are done, how they are done and through which procedures are salient in further personal operations. The chances of the self-initiated expatriates learning more are higher since they are aware of why they visit the other countries. Having a well-planned agenda can improve the area of interest and the likelihood of gaining from the experience. The work understanding and experience learned abroad are trusted in other countries, and this increases their opportunities (Peltokorpi, 2008).
During the trips to other countries, the self-initiated expatriates are employed in the host countries as local employees and the ways the normal local employees are treated is the same way the SIEs are treated. The advantage of being a local employee is that the host companies provide them with information about learning and the social environment. Being a local employ also helps in creating a local network, therefore, increasing the chances of greater opportunities (Wood & El Mansour, 2010). Equipping the local employees with the crucial information on social issues and learning resources help them to understand their ways of survival and how to live in the host country. The assigned expatriates on the other hand work on the terms of the company and all the information they obtain belong to the companies which sent them. The chances of getting additional are minimal since they are confined as the expatriate employees and must live with the terms of the company. The rules that they are given reduces their chances of learning more about the social network and ways of survival. This gives the SIEs an upper hand in learning and achieving their goals (Lim et al., 2012).
SIEs are free and can always move around to other countries when they are not satisfied with their current conditions. The fact that they are not working for specific group of people makes them available for further movement. This flexibility is salient in enabling the SIEs to be available in case of anything. The difference between the SIEs and the assigned expatriates is that they latter must stay in their countries of work until the contract expires (Pattie & Parks, 2011). The possibility of the self-initiated expatriates to move around other countries improves their likelihood of working in any environment, and this gives them a wider experience both socially and professionally. This ability increases the level of work capability and fetches a high market when they get back to their home countries. The assigned expatriates have relatively fewer chances of expanding their experience since they have to remain within their area of work (Froese, 2012).
According to statistics, the self-initiated expatriates are more likely to start their career at a younger age since most of them do not go abroad for jobs but other interests as well. Having a good age to start off a living makes it possible for a further growth in the future if the trend is properly maintained. The young people are energetic and can make a lot within a very short time, and this would let them develop themselves. In many occasions, the assigned expatriates are aged since most multinational companies take the experts to other countries (Selmer & Lauring, 2011). One of the reasons is that the aged have the required experience and, therefore, can perform the given task properly. Fewer years of experience bar the young people in the companies from such positions since the experience that they have is not sufficient to enable them perform certain tasks. The young people with no proper jobs tend to go the other countries with different reasons, form part of the host countries then earn their living. The results observed after a couple of years would show that the self-initiated expatriates have higher chances of achieving their goals compared to the assigned expatriates (Lii & Wong, 2008).
The ability to adjust to the new area of work depends on the choice of the employee. The self-initiated expatriate can adjust quite fast since they do what they ever wanted to do. The urge to adjust to the new environment comes with the individual’s interest. The assigned expatriates normally find it hard to adjust since they hardly pan for their work. This makes it challenging for them to find a way of adjusting to the new environment. The chances of adjusting are minimal and can only increase when the assigned expatriate chose to volunteer for the specific job. The mobility of the self-initiated expatriates is so high, and this allows them to adjust faster to their environments. The rate at which the individual SIEs adjust also depends on the individuals relations with the surrounding ( Liu & Lee, 2008).
Liu, C.-H., & Lee, Hung-Wen. (2008). A proposed model of expatriates in multinational corporations. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal.
Biemann, T., & Andresen, M. (2010). Self-initiated foreign expatriates versus assigned expatriates: Two distinct types of international careers? Journal of Managerial Psychology.
Cerdin, J. L., & Le Pargneux, M. (2010). Career anchors: A comparison between organization-assigned and self-initiated expatriates. Thunderbird International Business Review, 52, 287–299.
Fang, Y., Jiang, G. L. F., Makino, S., & Beamish, P. W. (2010). Multinational firm knowledge, use of expatriates, and foreign subsidiary performance. Journal of Management Studies, 47, 27–54.
Froese, F. J. (2012). Motivation and adjustment of self-initiated expatriates: the case of expatriate academics in South Korea. The International Journal of Human Resource Management.
Froese, F. J., & Peltokorpi, V. (2012). Organizational expatriates and self-initiated expatriates: differences in cross-cultural adjustment and job satisfaction. The International Journal of Human Resource Management.
Hutchings, K., & Murray, G. (2002). Australian Expatriates’ Experiences in Working Behind the Bamboo Curtain: An Examination of guanxi in Post-communist China. Asian Business & Management.
Lii, S.-Y., & Wong, S.-Y. (2008). The antecedents of overseas adjustment and commitment of expatriates. The International Journal of Human Resource Management.
Lim, P.-L., Han, P., Chen, L. H., MacDonald, S., Pandey, P., Hale, D., Freedman, D. O. (2012). Expatriates ill after travel: results from the Geosentinel Surveillance Network. BMC Infectious Diseases, 12.
Pattie, M., & Parks, L. (2011). Adjustment, turnover, and performance: the deployment of minority expatriates. The International Journal of Human Resource Management.
Peltokorpi, V. (2008). Cross-cultural adjustment of expatriates in Japan. The International Journal of Human Resource Management.
Peltokorpi, V., & Jintae Froese, F. (2009). Organizational expatriates and self-initiated expatriates: who adjusts better to work and life in Japan? The International Journal of Human Resource Management.
Selmer, J., & Lauring, J. (2011). Marital status and work outcomes of self-initiated expatriates: Is there a moderating effect of gender? Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal.
Shen, Y., & Kram, K. E. (2011). Expatriates’ developmental networks: network diversity, base, and support functions. Career Development International.
Wood, E. D., & El Mansour, B. (2010). Integrative Literature Review: Performance Interventions That Assist Chinese Expatriates’ Adjustment and Performance: Toward a Conceptual Approach. Human Resource Development Review.
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