The Study Of Green Fashion In Hong Kong Literature Reviews Examples
A Thesis Submitted
the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (Honors)
Fashion & Textiles
(Fashion & Textile Design Specialism)
I hereby declare that this thesis is my own work and that, to the
best of my knowledge and belief, it reproduces no material
previously published or written, nor material that has been
where due acknowledgement had been made in the text.
____________________________________ (Name of Student)
LIST OF CHART
LIST OF FIGURE
Background of Study
The prompt advancement of smartphone technologies facilitated individuals to gain better access to the Internet. With the development in mobile phone applications, the preponderance of social media excelled. This virtual community aided people to create, share or interchange information through social interactions. Fashion retailers foresaw the business potential in mobile social media, and mobile E-commerce was utilized to enable customers to view and purchase their merchandises. Consequently, amplified amounts of people were aware of current fashion trends. This not only could encouraged apparel firms to be fast fashion oriented, but also this would intensified negative impacts to the environment.
With the elevated size of people becoming trend-sensitive, brands expanded their fast fashion apparel selections to further boost sales performance. Alladi, Annamma, Chan, Wang, and John (2012) defined “fast fashion” as an affordable garment collection that was in line with latest and high-end fashion trends. The functioning mechanism was described by Alladi et al. (2012) as: new styles swiftly supersede the old, defining and sustaining constantly emerging desires and notions of self (p. 4). High street retailers realized that trends were fluctuating quickly, and to maintain a large pool of customers visiting their stores on a regular basis, they shortened their manufacturing procedures by speeding up prototyping, transporting, delivering, as well as making their merchandises ready-to-be-sold instantaneously on shelves (Skov, 2002). Also, to ensure their clients were satisfied with their products, they were frequently introducing chic items weekly and replenishing stocks (Tokatli and Kizilgun, 2009).
When a myriad sum of clothing firms was pushing the market to the track of fast fashion, the adverse effects to the environment was worsened correspondingly. One of the most noteworthy ecological problems was the boundlessly increasing landfill size due to the sizeable waste contributed by the fashion industry. Great quantities of potentially recyclable textile were dumped into landfills. According to Gould (2014), the European consumers send a net total of 5.8 million tons of textiles to landfills each year, with only the United Kingdom accountable for 350,000 tons of the total. With certain synthetic fabrics, namely, nylon, polyvinyl chloride and polyurethane, they are non-biodegradable that takes approximately 30-40 years to decompose fully. In addition, some wool materials would emit greenhouse gases like methane, which speeds up the global warming.
Within a garment`s fashion life cycle, water and energy were greatly consumed. To produce a mainstream garment a series of washing, chemical treatments and bleaching were necessary to make the product more aesthetically pleasing and comfortable. For denim and dyed fabrics, further dyeing process was done which produces more harmful sewage. According to an investigation conducted by Greenpeace (2012), the sewage of communal wastewater treatment plants in the Binhai and Linjiang a myriad of hazardous properties were found. It was particularly venerable around the industrial regions of Zhejiang area in China. The nearby river was contaminated as well. Furthermore, the production of distressed denim creates toxic sewage that polluted the water source, especially in Tehuacán in Mexico. As a result, aquatic species ingested the sewage and the chemical substance would accumulate in its body. When it passed down the food chain, bioaccumulation occurs (Tooles, 2008).
What is the definition of “green fashion”? The word “green” is extraordinary vague to give a satisfactory definition. It may be a dress made from undesirable textile materials, or by various ecological fashion design methods. According to Wang (2006), “green” could be categorized into pre-consumer and post-consumer wastages. The former contains by-products from textile manufactures await to be used in aeronautic, home furnishing or apparel industries (Wang, 2006). The latter is classified as any superfluous clothing or domiciliary goods discarded by owners as a form of garbage (Wang, 2006). In social perspectives, the word “green” was referred as a continuous indefinite activity that was inoffensive (Fletcher, 2008). A multifaceted and an alternating environmental dynamics were involved within “intersecting ecological, economic, and sociopolitical dimensions, both globally and locally” (Alladi et al., 2012, p. 2). In other words, when these aspects reached their optimal balance, the product could be classified as green.
Aims and Objectives
The aims for this project are to examine potentials in green fashion designs. The investigation would be founded on green fashion designs researches, testing and experimentation, and an actual design practice with assessment.
1) To characterize and distinguish green fashion in the current society;
2) To determine the desires and prominence of green fashion;
3) To investigate the present status of green fashion and sustainable-oriented labels;
4) To interview fashion associated parties` perspectives on green fashion;
5) To figure out means for a greener fashion industry;
6) To design a green-based collection comprised of 3 outfits;
7) To evaluate the green designs;
8) To propose recommendations on future growths of green fashion.
Scope of Study
In this assignment, different regions were studied, namely, the definitions, significance, and contemporary green fashion trends. Additionally, means to be green and to create sustainable fashion designs were discussed as well.
A quantitative study is employed in this project in an online questionnaire survey format to analysis Hong Kong people’s knowledge, views and acceptance on eco-fashion.
Structure of Thesis
Chapter 1 provided a detailed background and directions of the assignment. The aims and objectives were listed clearly for the ease of readers to recognize the purpose of this thesis. As for the scope of study, it was mainly a brief summary of the entire proposal. The research mythology showcased the types of investigations conducted.
Chapter 2 was literature reviews. Chapter 2 mentioned the definition of green together with the applications from other professions. The idea between green and the fashion industry were discussed in detail as well. (To be continued)
The word “green” has an identical meaning to suitability. The vast majority of people would think of it as an ongoing lifespan that would not be moderated or abbreviated easily. According to the Oxford Dictionaries, it was defined as the capability to withstand at a specific level or degree, or the ability to “conserve an ecological balance by avoiding depletion of natural resources”. On the contrary, what is definition of “fashion”? Christopher, Lowson and Peck (2004) interpreted as a term that usually includes any merchandise or market “where there is an element of style that is likely to be short-lived” (p. 367). Fashion trends are frequently emerging, substituting and shifting since runway shows from luxurious brands would establish a new style each season. Through imitation and adaptation, fast fashion-driven goods can enter the mass market rapider. Thus, dated stocks or “old” clothing are discarded which hasten and shorten the fashion lifecycle. In this scenario, both “green” and “fashions” have a seemingly contradictory relationship. Therefore, this chapter is going to investigate the possibilities whether fashion can be sustainable as well as its applications in other fields. Also, to further elucidate the correlation between green and fashion.
Definition of Green
The most broadly recognized the World Commission on Environment and Development report proposed definition of “green” as a sustainable development, which was: a development model that allows us to meet present needs, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987). To be genuinely “green”, it was fundamental to fulfill contemporary desires without leaving any irreversible matters or destructive residue to the later generations.
As stated previously in Chapter 1, there were three environmental dynamics involved: ecological, economic, and sociopolitical dimensions. To illustrate this idea, a figure from the IUNC shown the three areas, environmental, social and economic sustainability became the core of conventional sustainability philosophy. There were a total of three graphical representations demonstrating the idea of sustainability thinking.
The illustration (Figure 2.1.) showcased that in order to have a well-rounded sustainable development, the economic has to progress steadily; the government has to publish feasible policies catering both short and long-term environmental protection; citizens have to work as a whole to improve their civilization in terms of their economical, political, and social structures. However, Adams (2006) specified that the ‘Three Pillars’ model was faulty as trade-offs could be made within the three dimensions. The utmost emphasis was positioned upon the Economic Growth region and resulted in continuous degradation and development did not reach a highly satisfactory. Adams (2006) highlighted that this diagram could not be perceived as equivalent and he suggested two reasons for it. Primarily, the economy emerged from the society as an institution that implied the society mediated the exchange of economic values through creating rules and systems. Hence, there was a greater likelihood of trading offs amongst the two whereas it was not applicable to the environment. Furthermore, the environment was vital to the society and economy as it offered the chief resources for both sectors. In accordance to Adams (2006), the availability of resources presented a finite constraint effectively to human activities leading both economy and society unsustainable.
B. Concentric Circles
Because of the high occurrence of trade-offs and apparent inadequacy in the resource availability, the ‘Concentric Circles’ might be a better model. The diagram (Figure 2.2.) illustrated the exterior loop embodied the environment, the intermediate ring symbolized the society, and the internal one indicated the economy. The economy and society were portions of the environment. Hart (1997) argued that since the society was section of the environment, the invasion of natural and short-term subsistence resources by human population occurred which means no external limiting factor existed.
Figure 2.3. ‘Continuous Interrelatedness Concentric Circles’ as cited Lozano, R. 2008.
The highly thropocentric model implied economy was the core of sustainability and clashed with the idea of balance in the 3 components (Hart, 1997). Also, the inter-relationship was not as obvious as the Three Pillars.
C. Venn Diagram
The diagram (Figure 2.3) presented the sustainability through the overlapping regions. Lozano (2008) noted that it was faulty as sustainability is considered to be “compartmentalized and disregards the inter-connectedness within and among the three aspects” (p. 5). Meanwhile, it lacked the dynamics procedure changes over time.
The diagram (Figure 2.4.) is the enhanced version of the Venn diagram, Dalal-Clayton and Bass (2002) added: Local, National, and Global perspectives, which included four societal influences: Politics, Peace and Security, Cultural Values, and Institutional and Administrative Arrangements. (p. 358). This system accentuated the significance of incorporating the Local, National and Global levels into the Social, Economic and the Environmental in a more all-inclusive fashion. Although it was imperative to achieve balance in the three aspects, Adams (2006) accepted that win-win solutions were rare. We need to sympathy means to make trade-offs between aims better to acquire and adept the corresponding solutions.
Applications of Green Design in Fashion
As an increasing amount of high-street retailers turned heads to the fast fashion trend, the natural environment had been in a hazardous position due to the previously mentioned activities caused by us. Not only the fashion industries were gradually becoming more conscious of the environment, but also more brands and designers were beginning to work on and combat this disastrous issue. In this section, examples of eco-friendly world-renowned luxury brands, fast fashion giant, and several green fashion designers were studied to understand the philosophies as well as their sustainable design techniques to make the fashion atmosphere a healthier place. Also, green approaches from these designers were further reviewed in order to apply those elements to my green designs.
Fast Fashion Retailer - Hennes & Mauritz (H & M)
With fast fashion retailers, we have ASOS, Forever 21, Topshop, Zara, and more. Majority of them concentrated their business goals into profit making and neglected the importance of social responsibility. H&M is the only largest high-street brand, which has a vaster and deeper product assortment offerings. It created H&M Conscious to provide more affordable, yet green fashion goods for their sensible clients. It runs its operation along side with the three dimensions, and it has solid commitments to a superior fashion future.
Economically, H&M considered an ethical business should be guided by equality, morality, and mutual admiration. Approximately 50% of their board members are women. Maintaining an all-encompassing business environment with high transparency is something they grip strongly as any form of corruptions are against their ethical beliefs, and it values human rights where diversity is embraced. To aid with the economy in developing countries, H&M teams up with environmentally conscious partners to discuss means of improving labors` situation in the textiles industry by influencing suppliers, educating employees in Bangladesh and India about their rights to support a fair living wage.
Socially, the H&M Conscious Foundation teamed up with three non-profitable global organizations to improve educations, water supplies and sanitations, and women`s economic empowerments in developing countries. In 2004, H&M partnered with The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to create a Flagship Program focusing on funding the most vulnerable children providing them with parenting education and formal schooling for an all-rounded childhood development. To ensure the poorest people in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan gain long-term access to clean water and safe sanitation facilities, H&M supports WaterAid to soothe this serious subject, and this program aided over 230,000 people. Since majority of the women living in developing countries have little or no industry, where men either dominate private sector occupations or tremendously uncommon, H&M collaborated with CARE to give them equal rights. This not only acts as a catalyst for the local economic growth, but also they could raise their children in an improved living condition.
The most significant dimension, the environment, H&M being the leading consumer of organic cotton in the world, made majority of their garments with organic cotton as it takes less water to grow compared to regular cotton. Due to the facts that urbanization and industrialization are becoming increasingly demanding, H&M made a three years long partnership with World Wide Fund (WWF) pioneering Water Stewardship for fashion. The fundamental target of this water strategy was to focus on water stressed regions in China and Bangladesh, and to work together with dealers and local governments to ensure the availability of quality water for both people and nature (H&M Conscious Actions Sustainability Report, 2013). To further conserve the water ecosystem and ensure sanitation, this collaboration also aims to educate manufacturers to consume water in their product lifecycle considerably and discard sewage responsibly, to teach farmers eco-friendlier methods of farming practices while minimizing water expenditure and pollution. Internally, H&M educated its 116 thousand employees on water concerns and provided them the tools to save water. According to the H&M Conscious Actions Sustainability Report (2013), their staffs worked with suppliers to improve how are denims are washed resulting in a reduction of water use by 314 million liters. The other advantages of using organic cotton are the facts that the crops is grown free of fertilizers and chemical pesticides as well as it is not genetically modified. Also, textile scraps and worn clothing were sorted, grinded, spun and weaved into fabrics awaited to be produced into new apparels.
Additionally, H&M uses other green materials, namely, FSC natural rubber, recycled polyamide, polyester, wool and plastic, organic hemp, silk, leather and linen, and lyocell. Particularly with recycled wool that leads us to the topic of animal welfare. H&M collaborated with Textile Exchange and other brands to develop and unified the Responsible Wool Standard (RWS). In accordance to Textile Exchange, the RWS is designed to protect animal welfare and to combat the unacceptable treatment of sheep in the shearing process revealed by the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). This standard also has an impact on enhancing practices and traceability is guaranteed. Furthermore, H&M committed to the Responsible Down Standard (RDS), and H&M`s official Animal Welfare policies are: We don’t sell genuine fur and we are a Fur Free Alliance listed retailer; we don’t accept down and feathers from live plucked birds or from birds that has been force-fed; we don’t accept hair from angora rabbits; we don’t use wool from farms that practice molesting; we don’t sell exotic animal skins, or use materials from vulnerable or endangered species; we only accept leather products from animals that have been bred for meat production; because of the poor transport conditions, we don’t use any leather from cows in India; all our own brand cosmetic products are made without animal testing (Animal Welfare, n.d., para. 6).
Sustainable High-end Fashion Brand and Designer – Stella McCartney
London raised British designer, Stella McCartney, is undoubtedly not just a luxury brand known for her precious tailoring and sensual femininity. Stella`s philosophy considers sustainability as recycling, and every little contributions can be added up to make an immense difference. Her passion towards sustainability makes her one of the most recognized pioneer in eco-fashion.
In relations to the three dimensions, Stella constantly works with charities and she partnered with the United Nations’ International Trade Center’s Ethical Fashion Program (ITC) to create a collection of printed tote bags, The Noemi Tote. This hand-painted and stitched mini collection aims to support the poverty stricken regions in Kenya. Subsequently, in 2012, the brand joined the Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI), a leading alliance of companies, trade unions and NGOs, helped to promote workforces` rights and improve their working environment all around the globe. On the economy perspective, in the interview Stella did with Tim Blank mentioned that she did a lot of fair trade such as the fair-trade organic knitwear she did in Peru.
Environmentally, Stella believes that with consistent effort, sheer persistence and determination to be an ethical company can change people`s perception of eco fashion. She is strongly against the use of animal leather, skins or fur in any of her merchandises as she has been a lifelong vegetarian as well as the well-known ethical glitches with animal culling. Nowadays, with the growth in global human populations the demand for food rises, especially for livestock products. Sizeable amounts of feedstuff, pastureland, water, and fossil fuels are needed to raise animals for food and leather. PETA discovered that by-products from beef, lamb, and pork productions are not sustainable. Marti, Johnson and Mathews (2011) stated that the inedible by-products included “hide, hair, horns, teeth, fats, bone, ligaments and cartilage, feet, glands, blood, and lungs” (p.3). The production of a coat made from natural fibers or synthetic materials intakes 20 times lesser energy compared to making a fur or animal skin jacket that may require additional resources to rear cattle. Factually, garments and accessories made of animal skins are non-biodegradable due to the hazardous chemicals involved to convert animal skin to leather, namely, mineral salts, formaldehyde, coal-tar derivatives, cyanide based oils, dyes, and finishes. The tannery effluent from chrome-tanning procedure contains enormous amounts of contaminants, such as salt, lime sludge, sulfides, and acids. These pollutants cause the collagen or protein fibers to stabilize and stop it from decomposing.
Worst still, leather-tannery workers have a greater risk to have tumor and other lethal diseases due to exposures to caustic and venomous substances.
Other than not using animal leather in her designs, Stella greatly supports using renewable and clean energies. Her stores, offices and studios in the UK are powered by wind energy entirely. Approximately about 45% of her operations are run on 100% renewable, green energy and 65% are run on partially sustainable energy. In 2013, her Dallas store achieved the official Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) certification as the store uses solar panels, FSC wood and energy efficient lighting. The sustainable site development, water saving, energy efficiency, material selection and indoor environmental quality elements are all addressed specifically in this store.
Sustainable Fashion Brand - YOJ by Laura Strambi
YOJ is an eco-friendly fashion brand founded by Laura Strambi, which was one of the first luxury brand combining extravagance, fashion and awareness of compliance of environmental resources in research. The brand philosophy emphasized on: the renewal of energy sources, and controlling the material productions in order to form a socially responsible image. Laura applied her in-depth researches on organic dyes and eco-friendly textile productions into her research collection. Organic fibres such as winter cotton, cotton/ silk and cotton/ bamboo blends, soya fibres and cashmere were all used in her clothing. To minimize the harm toward marine species, Laura used dyes extracted from vegetables and herbal-tea infusions by boiling.
Green Fashion Artist - Stephan Hann
Stephan Hann is a Berlin based fashion artist, who specialized in using undesirable and rejected wastages into wearable arts. Hann described his fashion aesthetic as recycled couture. According to Brown (2010), he described Hann has a tactile working procedure where he would seek new definitions for the unwanted resources, and establish an association with the materials prior to his design development. The interview he did with the Goethe Institute, which is a non-profitable German cultural association, Hann`s defined the word recycling as the alteration of an object`s context while preserving its memory of triviality, and its unimportance was frequently questioned (Goethe-Institut, 2008). In Hann`s standard of haute couture perfection, all discarded stuffs that appeared to be hygienic, unused or any physical damages were acceptable.
The main intention to Hann`s recycled couture was to “ennoble” the inconsequential objects and make their special qualities became more perceptible once they were decontextualized (Goethe-Institut, 2008, para. 9). He believed that every individual piece has their own stories, for instance, the dress made solely from the French military purses (Figure 2.5.). These purses symbolized lost souls of the soldiers because it was the only thing that they could bring with them during wars. By adapting them into a delicate piece of apparel, the purses revitalized and encouraged the viewers to think.
Applications of Green Design in Other Fields
The applications of this philosophy could be characterized into two categories, microcosm and macrocosm. According to Dulaney (2012), Microcosm denotes tiny items for daily uses whereas macrocosm means buildings, metropolises, and physical surfaces on the Earth. For instance, it could be applied into the fields of urban planning, engineering, human-computer interactions, arts and crafts, animal protections, and more. As this thesis focused principally on the design aspects, both architecture and interior design were discussed through illustrating examples. By studying and referencing other applications, we could potentially take and adapt some of the elements, and fused them with fashion to form sustainable designs.
In general, the word sustainable architecture is described as the utilization of design techniques that are environmental friendly. Dulaney (2012) described that the aim of sustainable architecture is to complement the “efficiency” and “moderation” in the usage of materials, energy, and development space to reduce the negative impact to our future generations to minimal (p. 3). Suggested by Williamson, Radford and Bennetts (2003) it could be interpreted as: Revised conceptualization of architecture in response to a myriad of contemporary concerns about the effects of human activity (p. 1).
The image (Figure 2.7.) showcased the reutilization of spare parts from an old bed into building. Both recycled or second-handed materials were incorporated to reduce energy consumption in material productions. To lessen the ingesting of new goods, timbers were reclaimed from destroyed buildings were awaited to be transformed, and used as parquet (Dulaney, 2012). The vast sustainable designers preferred new materials that could replenish rapidly as trees were preserved which took numerous decades to fully grow. Better still, Dulaney (2012) suggested that if the location itself were capable of supplying building resources would be the best-case scenario. Examples of green building materials include blown-in fiberglass insulation, sustainably harvested woods, locally gathered stones and rocks, and fast growing woody plant bamboos (Dulaney, 2012).
The terminology green interior design could be typically depicted as “determining the relationship of people to spaces based on psychological and psychical parameters, to improve the quality of life” (IFI, 2013). In other words, to acquire the ways of long-term use physical parameters were vital to the core of sustainability. The systems and materials need to be integrated as a whole and well designed to boost the positive impacts on the environmental, economical and social dimensions of the building (Kang and Guerin, 2009).
There were three dimensions that described the green interior design: Global sustainable interior design, indoor environmental quality, and interior materials (Kang and Guerin, 2009). Within the three dimensions, the indoor environmental quality was the most crucial one since minimizing indoor pollutants; improving thermal insulations and enhancing interior lighting were predominantly the tasks involved in it. Therefore, the key ingredients to a prestigious green interior design were materials, furnishings, and lightings (Avalp, 2013).
The buildings (Figure 2.5.) were the K2 sustainable apartments that primarily concentrated their green interior design features based on materials, thermal insulations and lightings in conjunction with the passivhaus standard (Figure 2.6.). Firstly, the building materials used for this particular department were primarily sustainable and recyclable resources. The sustainable supplies involved were blown-in fiberglass insulation,
locally obtained stone, sustainably harvested wood and roman self-healing concrete, which has high and ultra high performance. Bamboos were utilized due to its fast growing, rigorousness, and non-toxic properties making it an ideal green material. As for the thermal insulations, Dulaney (2012) suggested that efficient heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system were fundamentals to a well-insulated interior environment. Windows played a critical role as they were made of glass, which was a poor heat insulator, were strategically positioned to harvest light as well as decreasing heat loss.
The interior of the United States Green Building Council headquarters in Washington DC (Figure 2.7.) focused their green interior perspective on daylight management. Unlike the previous sustainable green interior design where it was material-intensive, light coloured carpet tiles were used along the perimeter to simulate the function of a light shelf as illustrated in the diagram (Figure 2.8.). To allow a greater diffusion of daylight, placement, height, colour of furniture, wall, ceilings and floors were considered thoroughly (Sorrento, 2012). As with the issue with comfort tradeoff, glaring was avoided by modeling and strategizing the seasonal sun angels to locate the workstations. The automatic motorized shades systems were designed based upon the density of clouds, duration of natural light, and season (Sorrento, 2012).
Figure 2.8. Green Interior Design of the United States Green Building Council
headquarters, Washington, DC as cited Envision Design, PLLC, 2009.
Approaches of Green Design in Fashion
Through analyzing and studying the applications of sustainable design in both fashion and other professions as mentioned formerly, there were various eco-friendly fashion design methods to be concluded.
Utilization of Green Fabrications
Selecting the right material is fundamental to a well-considered sustainable design. Natural fibres can be categorized into three main groups: Vegetable fibres; animal fibres; mineral fibres. Both eco-friendly vegetable and animal fibres are the main focuses, namely, organic bamboo, cotton, hemp, linen, and silk.
Organic bamboo is one of the most interesting and eco-friendly materials. It is made from bamboo grass mass. Bamboo grows up to a meter a day, so its cultivation does not require pesticides and other chemicals (Waite, 2009). In addition, it has some amazing properties:
It is silky. Clothes made of bamboo fiber are surprisingly soft to wear and feel like silk cashmere.
It is hypoallergenic. Organic and natural bamboo fabric does not cause allergic reactions and does not injure the sensitive baby skin. Bamboo clothing can be worn even by infants and children with a variety of dermatitis.
It is a good absorbent. Bamboo absorbs by 60% more moisture than cotton. It produces beautiful robes, towels, blankets, pajamas and underwear.
It breathes well (Pavko-Čuden & Kupljenik, 2012). Due to natural pores, fabric made of bamboo is well breathable, and is very pleasant for the body.
It is temperature controlled. Clothes made of bamboo keep heat in cool weather, but in the heat stay cool on the contrary, that is, people in it do not sweat and not overheat.
It is anti-bacterial. Bamboo has antibacterial properties and prevents the growth of bacteria.
It is UV stabilized. Bamboo fabric does not pass UV radiation.
It is durable. Bamboo fabric is very strong, which is very important in children's clothes, especially for boys. In this sense, jeans made of bamboo is a wonderful thing: soft and durable.
It is easy to care for. Bamboo fabric is washed easily and remains soft even after multiple washings.
It is natural and organic. Bamboo fabric contains only natural bamboo grass, no impurities and adding synthetics.
It is environmentally sustainable. Bamboo material is not harmful to the environment during the cultivation of the plants, as well as in production, or even if it will be thrown away, as it is 100% biodegradable.
Finally, it is friendly to the environment. Bamboo even more effectively than other trees and plants helps in the fight against global warming.
Mark organic is used not for any product, but only for those that are grown without harm to the environment. When it comes to cotton, organic can only be called one that is grown in controlled biological farms in accordance with strict environmental criteria without the use of pesticides (Hustvedt & Dickson, 2009).
It is even difficult to imagine for people how many chemicals are used to grow cotton alone. They include pesticides used for pest control and insecticides, which save fields from insects and herbicides, which are designed to control weeds. Over the past 80 years, the total number of cotton fields around the world remained virtually unchanged, but the returns from them have grown by 30 times.
According to Greenpeace (www.greenpeace.com), worldwide each year pesticide poisoning kills more than 28,000 people (Casadesus-Masanell et al., 2009). Also suffer from pesticides animals and insects that are not the purpose of distributed chemicals. But the same pests mutate and adapt to pesticides, so you have to create increasingly strong chemicals. When organic cotton is growing, to repel pests there are used natural substances, such as a mixture of garlic, chili pepper and soap.
Organic cotton is grown using organic fertilizers and crop rotation. Natural fertilizers - compost and manure - provide the required amount of nutrients and do not pollute the soil and subsequently water. Compliance of rotation takes place when at one piece of cultivated land there are different agricultures, which leads to the regeneration of natural soil. In growing conventional cotton, on the same land there is cultivated only one culture, which leads to a very rapid depletion of the soil and increases the need for application of chemical fertilizers.
Organic cotton is assembled by hand. The fact that cotton boxes ripen unevenly, and only a person can determine when the time has come to collect, and what still needs to ripen. Consequently, organic cotton is cleaner, there are no impurities of foliage (Gam et al., 2010). In the collection of conventional cotton, there are used chemicals that contribute to fall off the heads of cotton and facilitate the process of collection.
In growing organic cotton, there are not used genetically modified seeds. In addition, there are applied energy-saving technologies (solar panels), as well as water-saving irrigation technologies.
All of this lies behind the tiny label that says organic cotton. Clothes made of organic cotton are most suitable for children and people with sensitive skin because it does not contain pesticides and heavy metals. That reduces the risk of allergic reactions to zero. It is also worth adding that in the processing of organic cotton fabrics, there are not used harmful dyes and dangerous for human chlorine bleach.
There is only one fast-growing natural product capable of providing not only excellent fabric, but also being environmentally friendly at the same time. This product is grown mainly in Eastern Europe and Asia, where it is a popular crop. It is hemp - fiber that is cultivated by man since prehistoric times for the production of fabrics, oil, medicine and as a basis for soaps, creams, moisturizers and shampoos.
Growing hemp is easy and profitable: from one acre of land can be gathered amount, which by 2-3 times exceeds the cotton crop (Herva, Álvarez & Roca, 2011). In this case, fabric obtained from hemp is stronger and softer than cotton, twice more durable and not prone to mildew. Additionally, hemp grows in much more extensive climatic habitats than cotton, and has good resistance to frost. In addition to its use for the production of the fabric fibers, hemp can be used for the manufacture of paper, cardboard, plastic, and substitutes even as fuel (e.g., bio-diesel).
Clothes made of hemp fibers represent care not only about the environment, but also about people’s well-being and health: because the fabric produced from textile varieties of this plant has antibacterial, hypoallergenic and even medicinal properties and retains its biological quality after treatment. One of the main advantages of hemp cloth is that it does not contain traces of pesticides and other chemicals used to protect and stimulate the growth of other cultivated plants used as raw material for natural fabrics.
Hemp fabric has excellent thermoregulation properties and prevents overheating of body in hot weather and hypothermia in the cold season. It perfectly protects the skin from the harmful effects of the environment, such as heavy metals, harmful combination of temperature and humidity, damaging effect of excessive UV exposure (Bengtsson, 2009). Moreover, the live hemp fabric has refreshing and softening effect on the human body, toning it and having beneficial effect on the work of the body during the day. Clothing made from hemp is never electrified, not deformed to wear and does not deteriorate in the wash, and all this does not require special care.
Perhaps the earliest child of the textile industry - or, alternatively, its parent, linen is ever relevant today (Kim & Ma, 2014). For growing plants of the linen family, the suitable location is with a mild subtropical climate: the entire south of the Eurasian continent and North and Latin America, most of Africa and Australia, Spain, Italy and other European countries, where linen has long been and remains one of the most popular crops.
Linen is good not only due to its natural character, but also the fact that it is checked literally by thousands of years. It is distinguished also by an excellent hygroscopic property, i.e. the ability to absorb moisture, for which linen was valued by the ancient Egyptians. Plus, depending on the manufacture, linen fabric can have very different texture - from rough to smooth (Vadicherla & Saravanan, 2014). However, there is a number of shortcomings in linen. First, it is strongly wrinkled in wear. In recent years, it is not critical, as wrinkled tissue is just in fashion, but if you still prefer to wear neat and ironed looks, linen is not for you.
Second, linen holds dye badly. That is, after the first wash your blue linen suit can become light blue. This feature is especially unpleasant to occur if you happen to sweat in a suit - blue stains remain on your body (Choudhury, 2015). And, thirdly, the clothing from linen can significantly be deformed and shrink after washing. This feature should be also considered when buying textile products made from linen.
Silk is a soft fabric of yarns produced from silkworm cocoon. The main producer of silk is China (90% of the market). There is annually produced about 80,000 tons of silk (it is 1% of the total annual volume of textile fibers). By the volume of production, silk fabrics occupy the second place after cotton (Jain, 2007). However, the share of natural silk accounts for only 2%, the remaining 98% is the so-called artificial silk, which can be more properly called the acetate or viscose rayon. For its production, there is used natural polymer – cellulose.
Organic silk is a physiological fiber, similar in chemical composition to human hair. Silk is mainly composed of proteins (90%), fats and waxes, as well as 18 amino acids, positively affecting human metabolism (Dawson, 2012). So sometimes silk is even called "second skin". Silk thread has a cylindrical shape with a very smooth surface, which differs by exceptional softness and strength. It even does not irritate sensitive skin and does not cause any mechanical damage. In addition, natural silk promotes healing and rejuvenation of the skin. Silk is hypoallergenic, has the ability to prevent the proliferation of pathogenic microbes.
It does not attract dust, completely eliminates dust mites and saprophytes, does not create an environment for the formation of fungus, does not store dust that makes the bedding from it ideal for people suffering from various allergies. Silk perfectly adapts to the temperature of body and provides the necessary additional warmth. Therefore, its use is ideal for those who suffer from poor circulation, joint pains, rheumatism and arthritis.
Contained in silk protein fibroin holds seven times more moisture than other moisturizing ingredients (Kaplan, 2010). In consequence, silk is able to absorb moisture up to 30% of its own weight, and remain dry to the touch. In this case, the silk thread simply increases in size, and good air circulation contributes to the rapid evaporation of excessive moisture.
An important difference and advantage of natural silk from its synthetic substitutes is that silk is not electrified. Firmness of silk thread is like in a steel wire of the same diameter. Silk is strong in tension, does not burn or melt.
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
More and more people are getting to know the three pillars of conscious consumption, 3R - reduce, reuse, recycle. If someone is lost in a variety of environmental concepts and do not know how to begin to live a green lifestyle, it is a good idea to start with them.
Thus, the first step is to reduce consumption. It is great, of course, to recycle goods, instead of throwing them away, but it is even better not to buy them. On the one hand, reducing the number of things that you use in everyday life is the first and most important step in saving the planet. On the other hand, it will help relieve the private living space and feel a little freer (Birtwistle & Moore, 2007).
In fact, reducing is the easiest way, which does not require the application of energy to look for opportunities to recycle or things to use again. You just need to decide for yourself what you really need and what do not. In the latter category, there can get anything from the wasteful consumption of electricity and water to the abuse of plastic bags and packaging.
Some products, such as bananas, do not require additional packaging. There is no need to keep the microwave plugged in all day and night if you once a day warmed up in it bread and cheese, and going shopping, you can take a reusable bag or your existing package.
The second step is reuse (Hustvedt, 2006). After dropping ballast, refusing to buy extra skirts and rods, it is necessary to find a way to use some things again. Organic waste can be turned into compost, old clothes put in a shelter, or donated to charity, some old things can be used to create new ones. Ranging from cookware from citrus peels and coconuts, finishing with beads of buttons. There are many solutions. In general, in a stream of DIY there are lots of "recipes" on this topic.
There is also a whole new trend in design, which works only with secondary materials. There are many examples around the world, say, benches made of old skateboards in America, Freitag bags of automobile awnings in Switzerland, bags bannerbag of advertising banners in Moscow, etc. There are options for every taste (Fletcher, 2013).
The third element is recycle. So, the first two steps have been painless, you can save the world further. There is still something left to throw away. Moreover, statistics shows that the lion's share of all household waste accounts for numerous packaging from supermarkets, where we bring home products - Tetra paks, cardboard, glass and aluminum cans, several types of plastic (Chen, & Burns, 2006). Instead of dumping them in the general trash, it is a good idea to collect them separately and give in processing - this will help to conserve resources. For example, to recycle the aluminum can, there is needed up to 80% less energy than for the production of a new one.
Multi-functional Designs and Deconstruction
Today the possibilities of design are immense, as the technologies are developing very fast, and the world overall is changing. Buying a lot of clothes will not make a person happy, while for the ecology it can do a lot of harm, as all of this will go to waste eventually and will become a burden for the planet. Still, there is a convenient and effective way out – choosing in favor of multi-functional design (Berglin, 2008). In this case, a person can buy one piece of clothing that will satisfy several needs and desires at the same time. For example, one can buy a dress that can turn into several designs, and it can be a skirt or a blouse at the same time – the person would only have to change the style of wearing. Thus, the same design can take several forms and save money for the person, as well as save the planet from additional wastes. This is a win-win situation, that should seriously be considered by those who are concerned with the state of our planet and the way its resources are used.
The method of deconstruction is another interesting and effective idea that can aid in creating multifunctional design (Chen & Wu, 2012). It lies in the introduction of detachable clothing items, such as pockets, sleeves, etc. By adding or removing such pieces, a person can change the style of the clothing and use it for different occasions. It is convenient and allows for saving money and the planet at the same time.
The properties and opportunities of the green fashion that were described in this chapter are definitely vast and have all the chance to enhance and grow in the future. As there is a tendency today all around the world to discover and adopt different eco-friendly initiatives, it is important to understand how fashion deals with this issue and what future there can be for it (Gunther, 2006). Every person should know that there is such a notion as green fashion, which can help us live a happier, healthier life and save our planet.
Fabric Swatches Development
Design through Illustrations
GREEN FASHION IN HONG KONG
GREEN FASHION IN HONG KONG
4.2. Questionnaire Design
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