ADHD Research Papers Examples
ADHD refers to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It is a chronic mental condition involving problems of difficulty in paying attention, hyper activity and impulsiveness. It is ranked as the most common neurobehavioral disorder in childhood. This disorder, however, may continue during adolescence and even into adulthood. The disorder consists of three sub types, Predominantly Hyperactive Impulsive, Predominantly inattentive, and the Combined Hyperactive – Impulsive and Inattentive. The predominantly hyperactive – impulsive is characterized by more symptoms of hyper-activity and impulsiveness and less of symptoms of inactiveness. The Predominantly Inattentive kind consists of more symptoms of inattentiveness and fewer symptoms of hyper-activity. In this category, the affected children have difficulties getting along with other children and being pro-active. The combined hyper active- Impulsive and inattentive type is a combination of the three symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Most children who suffer from ADHD have the combined type.
The cause of this disorder is not clear. Scientific studies have nonetheless suggested possible causes of the condition. Studies imply that ADHD conditions run in families and therefore, genes play a key role in contributing to the condition. Children that carry a particular type of gene have a thinner brain tissue in the parts of the brain that are tasked with attention. When the children grow older, the brain tissue has been shown to grow to normal size. More research needs to be carried out to specify the type of genes combinations that cause the disorder. It has also been suggested that children of cigarette smoking or alcoholic mothers during the pregnancies have a higher risk of contracting the disorder. Brain injuries in children have also been linked to cause some ADHD related behaviors. Other studies indicate that exposure to fluoridated water and lead may increase risks to the disorder. Concrete scientific findings are yet to be presented as to the causes of this disorder.
The symptoms associated with the disorder are as follows. In the hyperactivity category, people with the disorder always fidget and squirm in their seats. They also are in constant motion and can barely sit still during family events or dinner. Affected children keep running around and mostly have problems doing tasks in a quiet manner. They also tend talk nonstop.
In the impulsivity grouping, victims of this disorder are known to be rather impatient. They have no restraint to speak and often are insensitive in their comments. They easily are nagging about always being first to receive things as they cannot wait for their turn. They constantly interrupt conversations and are often a nuisance to their parents in presence of visitors. Children that suffer more symptoms of inactivity have behaviors such as, being easily distracted. These have a problem in focusing on one thing. They become bored with an activity within very few minutes and do not pay attention to what they are doing. They struggle to follow instructions and so are really affected in their studies as they rarely complete assignments. Moreover, they do not seem to listen when someone is speaking to them.
These symptoms and behaviors in the child may be a major cause of frustration and bad attitude towards the child by parents, teachers and other people around him or her. This may be avoided if these people are aware of the condition that the child is suffering from and they adopt deliberate measures to assist the affected child or person. Children suffering from this disorder are prone to challenges in their academics. It leads to poor grades, detention and even expulsion from school. In some children, it causes low self-esteem and often leads to drug and substance abuse. It is therefore critical that ADHD is diagnosed as early as possible so as the affected party is assisted through medication and therapy. The condition is not curative and the various types of medication prescribed come to reduce the symptoms. Stimulant pills are for instance known to cause calmness in children. However, the medication prescribed for children or adults may not work for all people suffering from ADHD.
There are various ways to assist people living with ADHD to manage the disorder and still make successful lives. These include medication, use of psychotherapy and Education and training. Therapy involves use of practical interventions that help in the behavioral change of the affected child. Parents may work together with teachers and therapists to help in the reduction of symptoms of ADHD in children and adolescents. This can be done by using a system of rewards and consequences to correct the child’s behavior. Giving positive and negative feedback immediately a child does a particular act may discourage the bad behavior and encourage the correct one. Parents may help also by offering practical help such as helping children to complete assignments by sitting with them over the homework sessions.
The use of rewards for completed tasks and other good behavior is a motivation for positive change. Due to the child’s condition, they may always feel like failures. Parents may assist to mitigate this by praising the child’s abilities and strengths. This calms them down and reduces some bad behavior. Clear rules and schedules assist children with ADHD to be organized and to pay attention to detail. Consistent and clear schedules may be helpful. Parents need to be deliberate in guiding these children to follow the schedules effectively. For organization purposes, the children may benefit by having their everyday items organized for them. Parent administered interventions have been shown to be effective in moderating and reducing ADHD symptoms and conduct problems. However, the parents carrying out the interventions may need to go through stress management techniques in order to respond calmly to the child’s behavior and for effectiveness in the process.
Therapists may also be of major help in teaching children practical social skills such as sharing, how to give others an opportunity and how to wait for their turn. Adults suffering from the condition may be helped by way of professional counseling and therapy. Practical assistance may be in form of assisting them to divide large tasks in smaller ones to increase their effectiveness. Education and training them about the disorder is also essential in to helping them understand themselves better. These people need patience and encouragement around them to eventually assist them to lead successful lives.
ADH affects 9.0% of American children of ages 13 to 18 years and about 4.1% of American adults age 18 years and older in a year. The boy child is at a higher risk than the girl child for reasons not yet settled by scientific study. With this kind of statistics, therefore, it is the responsibility of every member of society to assist this population to lead a worthy life despite their condition. In classrooms, children suffering from ADHD should be handled slightly different from those that are normal. Studies show that students suffering from ADHD have difficulties in processing information. Their analyzing speed is slow as compared to normal children and adolescents. The school program could be made a bit more flexible in order to assist such students. For instance, allowing these students to have a bit more time in tests and examinations would help them to excel. The problem with this is the argument that it would put them at an advantage against their peers. However, it is important to acknowledge that these students require special attention as compared to their colleagues. Teachers may carry out special class sessions with these students to ensure materials previously taught is understood. This attention is vital in improving the condition of these students.
The other major way of helping those living with ADHD is acceptance. ADHD is a disorder that can be managed. Parents with children suffering from this disorder find themselves rejecting these children due to their behavior. Gaining education about the condition as a family may lead to an acceptance of the one with the condition. Punishment for these children should be differently. It is important to discipline children living with ADHD. However, discipline measures for these kinds of children and teens should be in form of awards for good behavior and slight unpleasant activities to discipline them for wrong actions. Severe punishment may lead to worse behavior and loss of self-esteem for children with ADHD. In classrooms, a firm rebuke is sufficient to disapprove certain behavior. Behavioral control measures such as having rules written down and placed near such children is another way to help combat ADHD behavior. Punishment should be done in a loving and understanding way for these children.
The condition is here to stay until a cause and a permanent cure is discovered. In the meantime, people living with this condition have to be helped to live and make achievements.
Brown, Thomas Edwards, Donald Michael Quinlan and Philip Christian Reichel. "Extended Time Improves Reading Comprehension Test Scores." Open Journal of Psychiatry (2011): 79-87.
Coates, Janne, John A Taylor and Kapil Sayal. "Parenting Interventions for ADHD:A Systematic Literature REview And Meta-Analysis." Journal of Attention Disoders (2014): 1-13.
Corkum, Penny, Mellisa Mc Gonell and Russell Schachar. "Factors Affecting Academic Achievement In Children With ADHD." Journal of Applied Research On Learning (2010).
Feldman, Heidi M and Irene M Loe. "Academic And Educational Outcomes Of Children With ADHD." Journal of Pediatric Psychology 32.6 (2006): 643-654.
Malin, Ashley J and Christine Till. "Exposure to Flouridated water And Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disoder Prevalence Among Children And Adolscents In The United States : An Ecological Assocuiation." Enviromental Health 14.17 (2015): 26-37.
Thapar, Anita, et al. "What Causes Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?" Archives of Disease In Childhood 97.3 (2011): 260-265.
The American Academy of Pediatrics. "ADHD: Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents." Pediatrics 128.5 (2011): 1007-1022.