Music, Video Games, and Stress Leading to Deviance Behavior Essay Example
The object of the study is to explore whether there is a relationship between music, video games, and stress leading to deviance behavior. That is, the current research is aimed at understandings whether music predicts deviant behavior, whether video games are linked to deviance, and whether stress is linked to deviant behavior. To determine whether there is whether music, video games, and stress predict deviance, a literature review will be conducted. I chose this study because there is an increasing prevalence of deviant behaviors hence the need to establish the causes. Therefore, reading of my research is important because it helps the reader to understand the factors linked to deviance. Consequently, readers will be in a better position to reduce the increasing prevalence of deviance among the youth. The project fits within the existing literature because it helps to clarify whether deviance is associated with each of the variables mentioned earlier.
Social Issue. Social issues are issues that are of concern to the whole society or issues that affect a considerable number of people in society. Social problems are those conditions that should be resolved or deterred from spreading because they are perceived as problematic to the society thus requires the society to react to them and find solutions. The study of the relationship between Music, Video Games, and Stress and Deviance Behavior is a Race or an Ethnicity issue because the prevalence of deviant behavior varies across racial or ethnic groups. For instance, a study conducted by Crutchfield et al. (228) to examine how early criminal justice involvement across racial groups revealed that African Americans are a third more likely to report having had police contact than their White colleagues. Also, African American teenagers have been found to have higher rates of property crime than their White counterparts. Additionally, African American parents have been reported to have higher arrests and incarceration rates than Whites (Crutchfield et al. 228). Overall, Crutchfield et al. (229) established that compared to White teenagers, African American teenagers had higher susceptibility of being arrested by police. Specifically, it was found out that by 10th grade, 25% of the African American Youth had been arrested compared to 10% of the White youth.
Apart from the difference in deviance behavior across different ethnic groups and subsequent differences in arrests, it has also been reported that there exist racial differences in video gaming among the youth. For instance, a study conducted by Carson et al. (450) to determine whether racial differences in a video game and Internet use exist in US adolescents, it was established that African American students had higher daily use of video games and Internet compared to their White colleagues. It was further noted that when African American males and females reported high video gaming than their White counterparts. Moreover, the results of Carson et al.’s (457) further revealed that Latino females had more video gaming than their White female colleagues.
Moreover, a recent research study by Anderson revealed that Hispanics have a higher likelihood of categorizing themselves as gamers. Specifically,19% of the Hispanics described themselves as gamers compared to 7% of the Whites and 11% of their African American Counterparts. Additionally, Anderson established that ethnic and racial differences in video gaming could be manifested in other areas. For instance, Hispanics were more likely to see an association between their video gaming behavior and actual violence. Specifically, 52% of the Hispanics stated that people who are involved in frequent violent video gaming are more likely to have violent behaviors compare to 37% of Whites and 39% of their African American counterparts. Another problem that was found to arise in video gaming is that African Americans (13%) had a higher likelihood of saying that video gaming portrays minority groups poorly than their White counterparts (Anderson).
Music, Video Games, and Stress and Deviance Behavior is also gender or a sexuality issue due to the existing gender differences in one or more of these variables. For instance, Duggan recently carried out a study aimed at exploring gender perspectives of video gaming; it was established that 50% of men and a similar proportion of women were involved in video gaming. However, it was further established that men had a two-fold higher likelihood of identifying themselves as gamers than their women counterparts.
Economic Issue. The current topic is also an economic issue because of the likelihood of the variables of this study to show differences across socioeconomic classes. In one of the most recent studies, Hussey et al. (851) sought to explore whether a relationship exists between socio-economic class and tendency to engage in delinquent behaviors. Findings of this study revealed that there exists a negative and significant relationship between participants’ social class and delinquency. This implies that as a person’s social class increases, the likelihood of engaging in delinquent behaviors decreases. On the other hand, Hussey et al. (851) variables associated with social class (education, income, and job) were found to be inversely related to delinquency. That is, the presence of high level of education, high income, and a good job decreases delinquency rates.
Deviant behavior has also been found to vary depending on whether a person comes from a wealthy or poverty-stricken family background. In one of the studies related to wealthy, poverty, and deviance, Althammer (1944) established that financial hardship or poverty as characterized by non‐receipt of welfare and high unemployment is linked to increased susceptibility to deviant or criminal behavior.
The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between Music, Video Games, and Stress leading to Deviance Behavior. Specifically, this study is aimed at exploring how Music, Video Games, and Stress contributes to an individual’s increased susceptibility of engaging in deviant behavior. There are many types of deviant behaviors that exist in society. They include all the behaviors that violate social norms such as assault, murder, rape, theft, and robbery. It is vital to explore whether a violation of social norms is attributable to Music, Video Games, and Stress to find ways of curbing such violations.
The current study is aimed at determining whether music, video games, and stress lead to deviant behavior. Consequently, the following research questions will be central to the current topic: a) Does music preference predict deviant behaviors? b) Do video games lead to deviant behaviors? And c) Does stress lead to deviant behaviors? These research questions are useful in exploring the causes of deviance in the general population. It will help to establish if deviance is associated with an individual’s music preference, video gaming, or stress.
All the three research questions that are stated above can be classified as conceptual questions. This is because they help “So what questions.” For instance, the first research question (Does music preference predict deviant behaviors?) explains to the reader whether a person’s preference for a particular music style can lead to deviance. However, if there is a relationship between the two variables, it does not offer a solution to the issue. Similarly, the second research question (Do video games lead to deviant behaviors?) helps to determine if deviance can be attributed to video gaming but does not offer the solution of countering it. Lastly, the third research question (Does stress lead to deviant behaviors?) is a conceptual research question because it helps to find out if deviant behaviors are caused by stress. However, it does not offer a solution too. Therefore, the three research questions can be used to inform the members of the public on the impact of music, video games, and stress lead to deviant behavior.
Deviance. Deviance is an increasingly global problem that needs urgent attention from all stakeholders, such as the parents, teachers, counsellors, and the criminal justice system. This is because deviant behavior is more prevalent in teenagers and young adults thus spelling doom for the future generation. My position towards the topic “Music, Video Games, and Stress leading to Deviance Behavior” is that listening to aggressive or violent music, excessive or compulsive video gaming, and stress are good predictors of deviance. That is, there is a high likelihood that individuals who listen to aggressive or violent music, engage in compulsive video gaming, and those who are stressed to exhibit deviant behavior. Because the current topic of study is “Music, Video Games, and Stress leading to Deviance Behavior,” the concepts that will be used include music and deviant behavior, video games or video gaming and deviant behavior, and stress and deviant behavior.
Video Gaming and its Impact on Deviant Behavior. Video gaming or video gaming is one of the most studied topics in relation to deviance or deviant behaviors. Researchers have, for a long time, wanted to understand whether video games lead to, predict, is related to, or is associated with deviance or deviant behavior. In one of these studies, Hull et al. (300) sought to explore whether risk-glorifying of video games is associated with deviant behavior using a longitudinal study. The sample of this study comprised of US adolescents. Findings of this study revealed that 49.5% of the respondents were allowed to play Mature-rated games occasionally by their parents. Also, the results of Mixed Modeling Repeated Measures Analyses conducted to examine the association between video gaming and alcohol consumption revealed a statistically significant association between video gaming and each of the measures of alcohol intake. First, it was established that video gamely leads to an increased quantity of alcohol consumption, increased frequency of alcohol intake, and increased risk of binge drinking. Overall, alcohol consumption increased exponentially over time with the rate of increase being linked to video gameplay. Moreover, video gaming was found to predict rebellion and sensation seeking and participants’’ tolerance for deviant behavior (Hull et al. 310).
Music Preference and its Association with Deviance. The influence of music on deviant behavior has also been of interest to researchers. In one of these studies, ter Bogt et al. (380) explored the impact of early adolescent music preferences on deviant behaviors. Findings of this study revealed that rock music lovers (such as punk, gothic, heavy metal, and rock subtypes), African American music (hip-hop and rhythm and blues), and electronic dance music were more likely to engage in minor delinquent behaviors. However, highbrow music and chart pop was not linked to delinquent behaviors. Consequently, it can be seen that the type of music an individual listen to at an early age is a strong predictor of later deviant behaviors or problematic behaviors.
Regarding music preference and its association with deviant behavior, researchers have also had an interest in examining whether Rap music or Hip-Hop music is associated with deviance. In one of such studies, Miranda and Claes (113–22), researchers sought to investigate how preference of four rap music genres (gangsta/hardcore rap, hip hop/soul, French rap, and American rap) is linked to five types of deviant behaviors (hard drug use, mild drug use, street gangs, theft, and violence). Findings of this study revealed that rap music as a whole was associated with deviance. However, the strength of the relationship between rap music and deviance and deviant behaviors varied across different rap genres. Specifically, it was established that preference for French rap was strongly linked to deviance than love for hip-hop/soul.
Stress and its Impact on Deviance. The influence of stress on deviant behavior has also been explored in empirical studies. For instance, Reynolds et al. (272) sought to investigate whether social stress affects risk-taking behaviors among adolescents. The sample of this study comprised of adolescents aged between 15 and 18 years. The results of this study showed that adolescents in the high social anxiety group were more likely to exhibit elevated levels of risk-taking behaviors when they were acutely socially stressed. On the contrary, adolescents in the low social anxiety group did not show any effect of social stress on their risk-taking behavior. Following these findings, it can be concluded that high social stress is a strong predictor of deviant behavior.
In another study, Zapata Roblyer et al. (475) investigated the relationship two sources of adolescents’ stress (family economic insecurity and low parental involvement linked to contextual constraints) and various types of deviant behaviors such as marijuana, cigarette, and alcohol use. The results of logistic regression analysis revealed that adolescent stress caused by impaired parental involvement was linked to a higher likelihood of marijuana and cigarette use after controlling for sociodemographic confounders. However, family economic stress did not predict lifetime substance use. Additionally, it was established that hindered parental involvement is a stress factor that increases the risk of marijuana and cigarette use among adolescents brought up in families comprised of undocumented members.
The current research complements the information I have found in the past empirical studies. My position towards the topic was “Music, Video Games, and Stress leading to Deviance Behavior” is that listening to aggressive or violent music, excessive or compulsive video gaming, and stress are good predictors of deviance. That is, there is a high likelihood that individuals who listen to aggressive or violent music, engage in compulsive video gaming, and those who are stressed to exhibit deviant behavior. My hypothesis has been confirmed through findings of past empirical studies related to the research questions. For instance, Hull et al. (300) found a statistically significant association between video gaming and each of the measures of alcohol intake such as the increased quantity of alcohol consumption, frequency of alcohol intake, and risk of binge drinking (Hull et al. 310).
Secondly, the research confirms complements the information reported in past empirical studies regarding the hypothesized significant association between music and deviant behavior. For instance, ter Bogt et al. (380) established that rock music lovers, African American music, and electronic dance music were more likely to engage in minor delinquent behaviors. Similarly, Miranda and Claes (113–22) found out that that rap music was linked to deviance. It was further revealed that preference for French rap was strongly linked to deviance while love for hip-hop/soul predicted less deviance.
Thirdly, the research confirms complements the information reported in past empirical studies regarding the posited significant relationship between stress and deviant behavior. For instance, Reynolds et al. (272) reported that adolescents in the high social anxiety group had high susceptibility of exhibiting elevated levels of risk-taking behaviors when they were acutely socially stressed. Similarly, Zapata Roblyer et al. (475) established that adolescent stress caused by impaired parental involvement was associated with a higher likelihood of marijuana and cigarette use.
Policy Recommendations. The findings of the current study have important policy implications. First, following the results of a significant association between video gaming and deviant behaviors, there is a need to restrict videogaming to individuals above the age of 18 years. This is because adolescents’ brains, unlike adults’ brain, are not yet fully developed; hence they have higher likelihoods of developing deviant behaviors following video gaming. Another policy recommendation following the finding that rock music lovers, African American music, and electronic dance music fans have a high likelihood of engaging in minor delinquent behaviors is that there needs to be regulation of these music genres. Lastly, there is a need to developing strategies of reducing stress among the most vulnerable populations such as people from low socioeconomic backgrounds and undocumented immigrants. One of the policy recommendations of reducing stress among people from low socioeconomic backgrounds and the undocumented immigrants is through the provision of food and shelter.
Following the current research, I gained an appreciation for the research cycle. More specifically, I understood that one of the best approaches to explore a phenomenon of interest, such as a social issue, is by first ensuring that there is a well-stated purpose statement. The purpose statement should be supported by past empirical studies. I also understood that after developing a purpose statement, there need to be clear research questions that are linked to the research questions. Thirdly, these research questions can be appropriately addressed using past empirical studies. Following the findings of these studies, the significance of the study can be inferred leading to policy recommendations.
I also appreciated the importance of systematically studying the object of study. More specifically, I understood that by following all the steps outlined above, it is easier for a reader to understand the link between the different phases of the object of the study. That is, systematic study of the object of the study makes helps in improving the clarity of the relationship between various parts of the whole issue. Lastly, the research helped me to gain a deeper understanding of the object of study. This is because guided by the research questions; I explored past empirical studies to answer each of the research questions associated with the object of the study.
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Althammer, Beate. ‘Introduction: Poverty and Deviance in the Era of the Emerging Welfare State’. The Welfare State and the ‘Deviant Poor’ in Europe, 1870–1933, edited by Beate Althammer et al., Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2014, pp. 1–17. Springer Link, doi:10.1057/9781137333629_1.
Carson, Nicholas, et al. ‘Racial/Ethnic Differences in Video Game and Internet Use among Us Adolescents with Mental Health and Educational Difficulties’. Journal of Children and Media, vol. 6, no. 4, Nov. 2012, pp. 450–68. Taylor and Francis+NEJM, doi:10.1080/17482798.2012.724592.
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Crutchfield, Robert D., et al. ‘Racial Disparities in Early Criminal Justice Involvement’. Race and Social Problems, vol. 1, no. 4, Dec. 2009, p. 218. Springer Link, doi:10.1007/s12552-009-9018-y.
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Miranda, Dave, and Michel Claes. ‘Rap Music Genres and Deviant Behaviors in French-Canadian Adolescents’. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 33, no. 2, Apr. 2004, pp. 113–22. Springer Link, doi:10.1023/B:JOYO.0000013423.34021.45.
North, Adrian C., et al. ‘Musical Preference, Deviance, and Attitudes towards Music Celebrities’. Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 38, no. 8, June 2005, pp. 1903–14. ScienceDirect, doi:10.1016/j.paid.2004.11.016.
Reynolds, Elizabeth K., et al. ‘Influence of Social Stress on Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents’. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, vol. 27, no. 3, Apr. 2013, pp. 272–77. PubMed, doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2013.02.010.
ter Bogt, T. F. M., et al. ‘Early Adolescent Music Preferences and Minor Delinquency’. PEDIATRICS, vol. 131, no. 2, Feb. 2013, pp. e380–89. Crossref, doi:10.1542/peds.2012-0708.
Zapata Roblyer, Martha I., et al. ‘Stress and Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use Among Latino Adolescents in Families with Undocumented Immigrants’. Journal of Child and Family Studies, vol. 25, no. 2, Feb. 2016, pp. 475–87. Springer Link, doi:10.1007/s10826-015-0249-9.
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