Data Analysis And Single Subject Research Essay Example
Type of paper: Essay
Topic: Treatment, Study, Effect, Education, Size, Performance, Information, Behavior
Single subject research is designed for measuring the changing performance on a variable of interest in order to respond better to the described treatment. This study includes behavioral measures before treatment, which is considered to be the A, the first A phase, during treatment which is considered phase B, and after treatment which is considered to be phase A2. The design of ABA is considered to be ideal for calculating the size-effect and the value of the study increases when the ABA phases are repeated across several sets of stimuli or behaviors. In this example provided in the study we have three sets of stimuli which were targeted for treatment.
The number of data point within a phase is different for each of it. The first phase A has four data point which are almost linear, the difference is seen between at point two where the line increase to the point and decrease after it, the B phase has also four point but the line is into a constant ascension and the last phase, A2 is the longest having fourteen points almost in straight line with few variations, which are present only at the beginning. In order to calculate the level of variability in performance, the study uses a variation of Cohen’s statistic which is calculated by Busk and Serlin.
The baseline trend for the A phrase is accelerating and contra therapeutic, the baseline trend for phase B is the same is accelerating and therapeutic, and the last phase A2 is almost straight whit a slightly upward acceleration.
In this study the level of behavior is not included in the calculation of effect sizes but in cases where the treatment is designed to decrease an undesirable behavior rather than increase, the absolute values of effect sizes are used.
The advantage of using visual analysis in this study is that it make it more clear because the study was three analysis that are which are reproduced after some period of time and due to the visual analysis, you can see at the first sight how the treatment evolve during the period and how the treatment has improved or not after a series of experiments. The disadvantage of the visual analysis is that you can’t see all the details; a visual image isn’t so explicit whit the measurements and requires a methodology that can describe in details all the procedures used. Single subject research methodology is important for answering specific research questions including demonstrating questions, parametric questions, component analyzing questions or comparative questions.
The analysis of performance across phases by looking at the percentage is slightly different. There is marked variability in research reports which regards the inclusion of follow-up probes obtained well after the cessation of treatment, being difficult to include those kinds of data in a meta-analysis. Although the level of performance from A1 can be calculate as an effect size for measuring the change of follow-up only due to the mathematical feasibility. After that, the design can be conceived as A1BA2A3, where A3 represents the extended follow-up probes. The effect size obtained from the A1 to A3 phase can be compared to the effect size from the A1 to A2 phase, thus providing an index of the durability of the trained behavior.
For conducting the meta-analyzing group the effect sizes should be reduced to a relevant common question. Meta-analysis will provide relevant and valid evidence which will be transformed into an effect size. However, the effect size in some studies contributes estimates for generalization effects also as direct treatment effects.
The number of all observations is weighed all which needed to correspond to every effect. When the multiple baselines came across the subjects designs, the average of the effect sizes is calculated relating with each subject, and all weighted average for all the subjects of the effect sizes represents a treatment effect related to the entire single study. A meta-analysis can objectively implement appropriately combine responses of other independent studies which can fit into a single conclusion. In an ideal way for the conducting to be relevant of the dependent variable the meta-analyses should be separated.
This study has presented a current approach of the analysis of a single-subject that can be quantified and synthesized thru the meta-analyzing process. New treatment approached is evaluated in this study which is a big advantage for the offers of evaluation, and helps emerging and shaping expectation for a relevant and potent treatment. If the study won’t advance rapidly due to the researchers routinely presented into the report effect at least will provide some necessary data which is required for the calculation.
Based on the study results the treatment worked but is still a work in progress. After replaying the test for three times the result have slightly improved in order to provide support for treatments which was implemented thru the clinical practice which resulted into a critical review due to the existence of aphasia treatment. The weakness of previous studies will be fulfilled by future research that anticipate to increase the understanding of one subject treatment outcomes and the routine of calculating the effect sizes in order to help promoting the evidence practice in areas of the domain of neuro-rehabilitation and aphasia.
Evaluating Single-Subject Treatment Research: Lessons Learned from the Aphasia Literature. (n.d.). Neuropsychol Rev. 2006 Dec; 16(4): 161–169. doi: 10.1007/s11065-006-9013-7
Richards, S., Taylor, R., & Ramasamy, R. (2013). Single subject research: Applications in educational and clinical settings (2nd ed.).Boston, MA: Cengage Learning