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Modern Western Civilization
The relevance of Europeanist ethnography is brought out for anthropological theory at large. Looking at an area most times seen as the origin more that the tool of colonization and anthropology. A group of anthropologies diversely bring forward the effects of studying subjects already researched in other fields (Bock & Michi, 89). History however tends to overlook Eurocentric models of happenings of the living past to bring out the meaning of ‘West’ as a particular location of power and reification also the edges of local area as where to focus ethnology. Mass public guidance does not exist and it will never exist because there cannot be land for the citizens if the fatherland exists no more. Kassab (12) indicates that Talal Asad says that the name father and citizen do not exist in modern language but refuses to explain the reason though he insists he knows it.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Jean was born in Geneva, Switzerland in the 18th century and at a time when Europe was beginning to get enlightened on Liberalism and human rights. Jacques focuses on political philosophy where he insists on political science a discipline that helps understand international relations. Jacques ideas in relation to the functions of the government are that the state’s function is to secure an individual’s freedom by respecting the social contract. The presence of politics without a civil religion; Christianity might be pure in religion but not in politics. Rousseau says that there might be corrupted Christianity that divides political authority. Protestant Christianity according to Rousseau is the most social and gentle but Catholicism as intolerant (Beatty, Oliver, John & Mita, 45).
Marquis de Sade
De Sade is a major contributor to the history of ideas even though three quarters of his work was destroyed. His political philosophy is written in Philosophy in the Bedroom, a dialogue between a priest and a dying man. It is the society’s belief about pleasure or pain that Sade says should not necessarily be an individual’s opinion. Sade in the hope that Frenchmen could become Republicans said they must accept atheism. Sade argues that republican ways would not fit the Frenchmen who he presumes to be Liberal.
Sade’s opinion of Christianity and republican is not conservative. Christianity according to Sade is rather hypocritical since it is restrictive of basic freedoms of individuals. Modesty and moral standards as displayed by Sade is rather low. In an instant he fails to understand how a monarch kneeling in front of a Priest would be respected. Sade is, highly radical and believes in liberalism (Troll, et al., 41).
Sieye included a person’s efforts in four classes. First, is that every individual should do agriculture labor since the earth has the raw materials for that. Efforts of the second class involve manipulation in order to add value and perfect the gifts of nature. The third class is characterized by the merchants and brokers. Less esteemed professions fall into the fourth category. Then there is the third estate. The third estate is a necessary formation of the nation as a whole. This takes care of those who can’t be in any class of the four and it doesn’t also belong to the nation. The Third Estate is the whole (Kant, Hugh, & Immanuel, 56).
Edmund Burke was intellectually attacking the French revolution. He warns about how high profile political changes would adversely affect France negatively. He wrote this before the worst had yet come to The Frenchmen during the revolution as terror days lay ahead
Burke lived in the era of Napoleon Bournaparte as on officer in Corsica. Burke advocated the British Monarchy with laws, though he did not favor absolute monarchy or democracy. The British model was directed by laws and the judicial organ was also permanent. That to Burke was the way. To keep the people together by establishing a combination of Monarchical, Aristocratic and Democratic rule was Burke’s advocacy (Islam, et al., 8).
Johann Gottfried von Herder
Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803) worked the Enlightenment liberty ideas and steps to self-government, but he insists on the centrality of ethnic, language and religiously defined ways of the people while looking at human history. Herder believed that God has condemned man to toil all his life. Mankind is the source of all evil. Government and oppressor have made rules in which to govern mankind through the arrogance of those who oppress others believed that these cultures alone provided a system to which it is man who makes oppressing rules for fellow individuals. Herder argues that man is born but however he toils to his grave.
Nature being self regulating allows each nation her own time to rule, with each ideology at a time, but with the hope of a reward for all wise and good people who have ever acted for the good of the human race. This is a good dream for the future life. He coins this ideology around fate that humanity challenges have already been solved in many ways but then the fate of the human being is the same (Doyle 67).
Through his book descent of man, Darwin relates all the vertebrates to some common origin. He connects the birds and reptiles, mammals with monotramata, fish and the amphibians. However as there are different races that when compared differ much from each other, so much in terms of complexion, hair texture, adaptability, capacity of skull and lungs (Islam, et al., 10).
Adaptability of their environments also depends on the climates to which they are used. An example is given of a people who migrated to North Africa who had to migrate during the season of yellow fever while the Negro community remained in safety. Darwin studies the human brain and found, that in man for instant, the external pendicular brain, a feature of the apes brain is unclearly marked, in females however it extends two inches outwards. The people of the Bushmen race are also found to have less complicated brain as compared to the European.
There are however some notable similarities between human brain and an apes brain. This supports the theory of evolution. Darwin studies the structure of the human brain to explain the difference between races as expressed in the studies by Gratiolet. The behavior of the different races and their appearance is explained by Charles Darwin by the structure of their brain and the adaptability in the environment in (Islam, et al., 10).
Bock, Heike, Jörg Feuchter, and Michi Knecht. Religion and Its Other: Secular and Sacral Concepts and Practices in Interaction. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag, 2008. Print.
Kassab, Elizabeth S. Contemporary Arab Thought: Cultural Critique in Comparative Perspective. New York: Columbia UP, 2010. Print.
Beatty, John L, Oliver A. Johnson, John Reisbord, and Mita Choudhury. Heritage of Western Civilization: Volume Ii. Princeton: Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic, 2003. Print.
Doyle, Natalie. "Notes on the Contributions of French Social Theory to an Understanding of Western Civilization, Christianity, and Modernity." Budhi: A Journal of Ideas and Culture (2008): n. pag. Print.
Islam, M. K., Juan Merlo, Ichiro Kawachi, Martin Lindström, and Ulf-G Gerdtham. "Social Capital and Health: Does Egalitarianism Matter? A Literature Review." International Journal for Equity in Health (2006): n. pag. Print.
Kant, Immanuel, Hugh B. Nisbet, and Immanuel Kant. An Answer to the Question 'what Is Enlightenment'?London: Penguin, 2009. Print. N.p., n.d. Print.
Sade, and Margaret Crosland. The Marquis De Sade Reader. London: Peter Owen, 2000. Print.
Troll, Christian W., Oddbjorn Leirvik, S. V. Sicard, Hermann Roborgh, J. S. Nielsen, Bert Breiner, Ataullah Siddiqui, and Wolfgang Schulze. "Book Reviews and Notes." Islam and Christian-muslim Relations 12 (2002): 13-41. Print.
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