Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Criminal Justice, Punishment, Crime, Death, Penalty, Death Penalty, Finance, Capital Punishment

Pages: 3

Words: 825

Published: 2020/12/08

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Introduction

Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the reasons behind the preference of few individuals towards death penalty significantly; others to a little extent that appreciated death penalty, and even few individuals that did not support the death penalty in multiple settings. Initial study emphasized on personal features that revealed a relationship with varied extents of advocacy for death penalty. It was established that white individuals do have greater inclination towards death penalty compared to black individuals ;;; . The study as well evoked that the greater level of advocacy for the capital punishment by white individuals may be due to prejudices against black individuals ;. This essay identifies the reasons that advocate the practice of death penalty ethically backed by relevant findings of varied researchers. It as well outlines as to why death penalty should or should not be supported.

Gender appeared as a significant element associated with capital punishment views, with male individuals likely to advocate relatively to females ;; . Study conducted in the 1970s established that senior United States (US) individuals advocated the capital punishment compared to younger US individuals.
Nowadays, an age of an individual is somewhat favorably associated to advocate the death penalty but not invariably . In few researches, individual’s education found to be unfavorably associated to the advocate level concerning death penalty and in others, no relationship exists between the two ; . A study conducted by scholars at four universities based at Texas, established that while probing at every fundamental, an insignificant advocacy experienced for death penalty within executives relatively to the inexperienced individuals. They pointed out the variation to the liberalizing influence of advanced teaching.
Political relationship appeared significant in terms of support for the capital punishment, with Antiroyalists commonly possessing greater advocacy compared to Egalitarians ; . Attitudinal capital punishment studies revealed excessive emphasis to personal characteristics as it found to be favorably linked with multiple support levels.
Deterrence is the concept that individuals in a society can play their roles and eliminating the crime by supporting severe punishment relative to gains received from criminal activities. Supporters of the capital punishment investigated reasons behind deterrence and claimed that a death punishment emerged a more effective deterrent than life imprisonment . The study supported that deterrence showed a collective motive procuring for advocating the capital punishment ;;. Even, most of the individuals including politicians argued that the capital punishment is favorable deterrent against death crime ; ;;.
Nowadays majority of the individuals understand that retribution is an adequate reply to fierce crimes according to studies conducted by ;. Retribution is as well called “just deserts” in the texts, and according to the findings of ;, it is a difficult punishment ideology. This ideology declares that criminals must be penalized and the penalization must address the injury due to the criminal activity. It is the notion that if an individual murders a person than he or she has to sacrifice life. Therefore, this ideology reveals that the death penalty is considered for individual that commits a murder. Retribution appeared as the most significant sentence ideology and it advocates capital punishment on the basis of emotions; . For most the individuals, retribution is composed of the concept of payback by the fatality’s family and society generally, that punishing anyone for death releases the irritation and injury carried out by the performance of fierceness.
Incapacitation is an another technique that requires adequate reasons from individual that commits a murder against death penalty ; ;. This ideology influences criminals to circumvent committing anticipated criminal actions. Furthermore, most of the individuals has a belief that custody of life, even with an opportunity of bail, does not really reflect life. Few individual declared that on any day malicious murderer condemned to life is expected to issue over to target upon blameless populations. The supporters of the capital punishment under this ideology believe that fierce criminals will not harm general public in the future.

Conclusion

The death penalty is the debated subject. Multiple studies investigated the behaviors of individuals towards capital punishment. This essay explored that gender, age, political relationship, and personal characteristics were the significant factors that supported the death penalty. Similarly, different ideologies including rehabilitation, retribution, deterrence, and incapacitation on death penalty as well appeared regular logic for varying perceptions of the capital punishment which are supported by the study conducted by .

References

Aguirre, A., & Baker, D. V. (1993). Racial prejudice and the death penalty: A research note. Social Justice, 150-155.
Arthur, J. A. (1998). Racial attitudes and opinions about capital punishment: Preliminary findings. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 131-144.
Bohm, R. M. (1987). American death penalty attitudes: A critical examination of recent evidence. Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 380-396.
Bohm, R. M. (1991). American death penalty opinion 1936-1986: A critical examination of the Gallup polls. In R. M. Bohm (Ed.), The death penalty in America: Current research, (pp. 113-145). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
Bohm, R. M. (1992). Retribution and capital punishment: Toward a better understanding of death penalty opinion. Journal of Criminal Justice, 227-236.
Bohm, R. M., Clark, L. J., & Aveni, A. F. (1990). The influence of knowledge on reasons for death penalty opinions: An experimental test. Justice Quarterly, 175-188.
Borg, M. J. (1997). The Southern subculture of punitiveness: Regional variation in support for capital punishment. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 25-45.
Combs, M. W., & Comer, J. C. (1982). Race and capital punishment: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Behavioral Economics, 87-105.
Ellsworth, P. C., & Gross, S. R. (1994). Hardening of the attitudes: Americans views on the death penalty. Journal of Social Issues, 19-52.
Ellsworth, P. C., & Ross, L. (1983). Public opinion and capital punishment: A close examination of the views of abolitionists and retentionists. Crime and Delinquency, 116-169.
Farnworth, M., Longmire, D. R., & West, V. M. (1998). College students’ views on criminal justice. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 39-57.
Finckenauer, J. O. (1988). Public support for the death penalty: Retribution as just deserts or retribution as revenge? Justice Quarterly, 81-100.
Firment, K. A., & Geiselman, E. (1997). University students’ attitudes and perceptions of the death penalty. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 65-89.
Grasmick, H. G., & McGill, A. L. (1994). Religion, attribution style, and punitiveness toward juvenile offenders. Criminology, 23-46.
Thomas, C. W. (1977). Eighth Amendment challenges to the death penalty: The relevance of informed public opinion. Vanderbilt Law Review, 1005-1030.
Vidmar, N., & Ellsworth, P. (1974). Public opinion and the death penalty. Stanford Law Review, 1245-1270.
Waller, B. (2011). Consider Ethics: Theory, Readings, and Contemporary Issues. New York: Pearson Longman.
Whitehead, J. T., & Blankenship, M. B. (2000). The gender gap in capital punishment attitudes: An analysis of support and opposition. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 1-13.
Zeisel, H., & Gallup, A. M. (1989). Death penalty sentiment in the United States. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 285-296.

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