Example Of Essay On Naval Blockade Of Cuba 1962
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The Cuban missile crisis, which arose in 1962 almost brought the world to the brink of nuclear catastrophe. Mankind fully experienced the possibility of nuclear apocalypse. Fortunately, realistic thinking won over the recklessness and emotions. Therefore I assume, that Cuban missile crisis is one of the most crucial moments in the modern history of the USA and an undisputed success of Kennedy administration.
On the next few days begun the planning of the response. JFK called former presidents Hoover, Truman and Eisenhower and briefed them about the crisis, then establishing the Executive Committee of the National Security Council which had to meet daily to discuss the crisis and search for possible resolutions. The same day the president held a speech to the nation in which he stressed that the USA would not stop short of military action. At the same time the US administration announced a "quarantine" of Cuban ports, with the intention to inspect all cargo arriving by sea to Cuba, no matter under whose flag they are transported. But the introduction of the blockade in international law is seen as an act of aggression, and American diplomacy has avoided the term, using the word "quarantine". October 23, late at night Robert Kennedy, US Attorney General and the president's brother John. Kennedy, informally visited the Soviet Embassy in Washington, where a secret conversation with the Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin presented the American vision of the situation. The United States agreed to make a statement renouncing attempts to overthrow Fidel Castro by force. In response, the Soviet Union agreed to start dismantling its missile installations in Cuba to remove the missiles from the island and do not place them there in the future.
The surveys of public opinion about the identity of presidents since Franklin D. Roosevelt, Lyndon B. Johnson holds one of the last places. The approval of the Tonkin Resolution led the USA to the war with the highest number of casualties after the WW2
Traumatic events marred his presidency, which began with the violent death of John F. Kennedy and accompanied by student unrest and severe racial unrest. It ended with the murder of African-American fighter for civil rights and peace laureate Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy, who was the hope of the younger generation.
The unrest in the Southern Vietnam, that was spurred be the assassination of the president Ngo Din Dien provoked the an immediate response from Johnson administration – sending military advisers and weaponry. The incident that happened on 7th of August 1964 served as a justification for a full scale invasion to prevent Southern Vietnam from falling into hands of communists. Congress support gave Johnson and his most importand advisors to push through the Tonkin Resolution. The number of US troops in South Vietnam has risen steadily in the following years and reached the on spring 1968 550 000.
As aftermath – Lyndon Johnson was for many year criticized for the Tonkin resolution and the Vietnam war, he himself until his death in 1973 resorted from any contact with press.
Paris peace treaty 1898 ratification
In the 90s the US government began to intensify its expansion on the Pacific Ocean and Carribean Sea. In 1893, the Hawaiian Islands were occupied. In April 1898 the United States went to war against Spain for the acquisition of the Spanish colonies. In 1895, a rebellion broke out in Cuba against Spanish rule. Cuba always had a strategic importance, bordering the southern coast of the United States. Back in 1849, the US government has offered to purchase the Spanish Cuba for $ 100 million.
April 21 1898 the diplomatic relations between Spain and the United States have been broken off, and then 23rd of April the Spanish government, then 25th the US Congress declared a state of war. None of the European powers had not intervened in favor of Spain.
USA claimed a quick victory, defeating the Spanish army and navy. December 10, 1898 was signed in Paris the Spanish-American world. Spain gave away Cuba, and soon the island was declared "independent". In fact, he came under the protectorate of the United States. Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines, according to the peace treaty, were transitioned to the United States.
After the Treaty of Paris was signed in December 1899, it required ratification by at least a two thirds majority of the US Senate. The debate regarding the ratification of the treaty divided the Senate.
The anti-imperialist part included many prominent senators and intellectuals, like Mark Twain or William James. The main issue about expansionism for anti-imperialists was the contradiction to the morality and the principles on which the United States were built – freedom and no racial subjugation. While the expansionists insisted that United States were guided and tasked by Providence itself to extend Christian civilization and to become a supreme world power. Still the Treaty of Paris was ratified and by the terms of the Treaty the United States gained control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and purchased Philippines.
The ratification of the Treaty of Paris started the chain of events that in the end led to the Cuban revolution and Cuban Missile crisis, that brought the world to the brink of total war.
The Compromise of 1877
The Compromise of 1877 was a historic event which, in fact, prolonged the discrimination of the African-American population for 83 years more, that negated the achievements of Lincoln and his administration, while on the other hand somehow keeping United States stable, saving it from possible grievous revolts.
After the presidential elections of 1876 it became apparent that the results rely on three disputed states - Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina, the only ones in which Republican governments kept their influence. As a bipartisan congressional commission debated over the outcome early in 1877, the representatives of the Republican party met with the Democrats secretly to negotiate the outcome of the elections. The Democrats agreed to accept Hayes as the winner of the presidential race, but demanded several concessions, among which the main was the withdrawal of the federal troops from the South, thus giving Democrats the possibility to regain control over the region.
The Republicans also parlayed the acceptance of the Jim Crow laws, which legalized racial segregation, and thus discrimination. In fact, it contradicted Lincolns ammendments to the United States Constitution, besides the war ravaged South just didn’t have enough workplaces and wealth as a whole, which made black population even more dependent on the former slavers than before. Hayes also had to accept the leading southerner to his cabinet and to support the building of the Pacific railroad and the overall aid for Texas.
Patterson, James T. Grand Expectations. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Print.
Johnson, Thomas Herbert, and Harvey Wish. The Oxford Companion To American History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1966. Print.
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