Example Of Literature Review On Fast Fashion
ANALYSIS OF TEXTILE AND CLOTHING SUPPLY CHAINS
Analysis of Textile and Clothing Supply Chains
The outsourcing in the textile and clothing industry is in a continuous movement and evolution, which was speed up by the rapid technological development, globalization or economic liberalization of various geographic areas. Inextricably linked with the type of fashion that they serve, the supply chain adapts on various strategies and trends that the retailers and the fashion industry impose as a result of the shifts that define different societies. This paper develops a literature review upon the trends that characterize the supply chains in the fast fashion environment, looking into the lean and agile supply chain management as the main strategies approached by fast fashion companies. These strategies will be applied on Zara and H&M supply chain management, for identifying what management strategy prevails in their operations.
The concept of fast fashion defines companies engaged in the textile and clothing industry that adopt a quick response to the clients’ requirements and provide new collections at every 3 – 6 weeks by closely coordinating their supply chain (Netessine and Tang, 2009). As Fernie and Sparks (2014) indicate, the fast fashion has revolutionized the fashion industry because it shortened the “products lifecycle in clothing from months and years to weeks and months” (p. 28). The manufacturers engaged in the supply chain of fast fashion companies demonstrate flexibility, adjustability and the capability of answering the retailers’ demands in short times. In the same way, along with the retailers, the manufacturers take the customers’ responses into consideration and respond to their needs for assuring their fashion needs. Looking at the type of retailers depending on their supply chain, Fernie and Sparks (2014) indicate that there are retailers without factories (such as H&M) and retailers with vertically integrated suppliers (such as Zara).
Fast fashion describes the crossroad between quality and price, as retailers make efforts of assuring timely models, as affordable prices, which to respond to the sophisticated and cutting-edge fashion tastes of the customers (Netessine and Tang, 2009).
A significant characteristic of the fast fashion stays in its structure based on basic products (t-shirts, pull-overs, jeans, which are predictable and can be produced in advanced), and fashion items, the elegant or fancy gowns, which are unpredictable and require rapid production (Netessine and Tang, 2009).
Shifts in global sourcing
The various shifts in the global sourcing in the textile and apparel industry have been hand in hand with the global social and economic shifts. Gereff (2002) notes that the history of sourcing was shaped in the fifties, when US and Western Europe countries where importing from Japan, which later imported from the Asian Tigers Hong King, Taiwan and South Korea in the 1970s-1980s. Later on, these three countries started importing textile and clothing from mainland China and several Southeast Asian countries plus Sri Lanka, and in the 1990s the sourcing included South Asian and Latin American suppliers (Gereffi, 2002).
A report produced by European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (2008) punctuates the fact that once with the emergency of the globalization the European textile and clothing industry was affected as the manufacture became more focused on the developing countries. Asian regions became the main manufacturing providers, living the local EU suppliers with little or no business, which eventually led to increased rates of unemployment in the developed EU countries, in exchange of cheap workforce in offshore sourcing.
The low labor rates and salaries paid for workers in developing countries such as India or China attracted many apparel companies to outsource their manufacturing in those regions. Other aspects contributed to this shift towards offshore supply, such as the technological development, the modernized transportation facilities and infrastructure, the market and supply accessibility, the free trade zone policies or the non-tariff barriers (Walsh, 2008).
Currently, in countries such as India or China, supplying low paid workers for textile manufacturing has become very affordable and the materials are considered casual commodities (Gereffi, 2002). These conditions create a climate of internal competition between different local suppliers in the Asian countries for providing their services to the Western textile and clothing companies, which comprises pricing strategies, facilitating the access of cheap labor for such companies.
In 2005, the World Trade Organization (WTO) initiated the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing Act, through which it removed quota barriers for the clothing and textile imports from 145 countries, members of WTO (Mihm, 2010). This act made the fashion industry attractively cheap in the developed economies such as United States or the Western European countries, making the clothing consumption higher. As the consumption grew, so did the offer, and this social reality facilitated the emergency of the trend called the fast fashion (Mihm, 2010).
Once with the liberalization of the imports from other countries, the local manufacturers started to compete with the retailers, formerly part of the same supply chain. As the retailers started to purchase materials and the end products (the clothes) from Asian countries with developing or underdeveloped economies, the local suppliers were severely hit and many former employees in manufacturing lost their jobs and businesses were closing down (Gereffi, 2002).
Not all companies approach this internationalization of fashion model. As such, Zara still focuses the biggest part of its production on its in-house manufacture, designing and creating its clothes internally, using its own factory, which is the fully vertical integrated model (Mihm, 2010). The textile and clothing industry acknowledges various organizational strategies in terms of manufacturing supply, which vary depending on the geographical and organizational dimensions. There are fashion companies who use internal supply at national, nearshoring and offshoring levels (such as Zara) and there are similar firms that mostly externalize their supply through onshore, nearshore or offshore outsourcing (European Foundation, 2008).
However, other brands are born globally, such as H&M, Nike or Reebok and they developed or adjusted to specific global sourcing strategies, such as externalizing the pattern grading, marker or sample making or requiring strict vendor certificates for performance improvement (Gereffi, 2002). This model, wherein the entire operation system is outsourced is called the fully outsourced model, as the retailer only maintains contact with the contracted outsourcer, not with the manufactories (Mihm, 2010). There is also another model that mixes up the outsourcing with the integrated services: the house branding model designs the products, contracts directly the manufacturers and manages the logistics and the transportation (Mihm, 2010).
There is, however, no fix receipt for organizing the sourcing. A recent trend in the fashion industry is to organize the supply chain as an integrated production network, focused on specialized activities, as a EU report notes (European Foundation, 2008). However, many other aspects are to be considered when deciding upon an integrated production network: the countries’ social and political conditions, the taxation policies, tariffs and quotas, easy, cheap and fast transportation means, labor costs or legislation (European Foundation, 2008).
The technological developments also played a tremendous role in the outsourcing shifts in textile and clothing industry. They allowed for fast dyeing of the clothes, smooth and effective laser cuts minimizing the material waste, the use of computer aided design technology for cutting and sewing and improved communication across continents, developed, developing and under-developed countries (Mihm, 2010).
The shift towards the fast consumption of the fashion, (which fulminated with clothing becoming statement of the lifestyle not a commodity) and the shortened lifecycle of the products have also speeded up the dependency on global sourcing, for serving the increased request for fashion (Hansson, 2011).
An important shift in sourcing occurred as a result of retailers’ need of immediately responding to the customers’ needs. This necessity of generating fast responses to the fashion request generated the fast fashion, which symbolizes the generations who dress because they want to, not because they need to (Gereffi, 2002).
Supply Chain Management Approaches: Agile & Lean
The agile supply chain management defines the top suppliers, which are able to consolidate their business, with all their operations, for answering faster than the rest to the consumer needs. Because of this adaptability, companies as Zara and H&M are trendsetters in the fast fashion segment, influencing the entire fashion industry (Netessine and Tang, 2009).
On the other fact, the lean supply chain management characterizes the organizations focused on producing mass identical products and whose operations are heavily automated, driven by tall hierarchies with large number of managers, each exercising specific roles (Chi, 2006).
Zara, owned by Inditex, is the fashion leader in terms of generating quick responses to consumers’ desires of changing their wardrobe in a seasonal manner (Zara official website; Sull and Turconi 2008). Behind its success relies its vertical integrated supply chain and its agile supply strategy. As such, the company produces faster than its competitors, being able to generate new in-store models at each three-four weeks because its manufacturing is local, reducing the transportation time from the offshore locations, as it is the case with H&M, for instance. Moreover, the company produces limited numbers of similar models, which produces two responses: (1) reduces the waste and unsold products; (2) makes the products unofficially labeled as limited production. Moreover, the fact that collections change so rapidly, with no return in-store of the previous clothes encourage clients to visit Zara stores often, considering that its collections change at every two weeks (Hapuarachchi, 2010).
The quick responsiveness (QR) in terms of fashion implies rapid adjustments and adaptation to the consumer generated trends, which defines the agile operations in textile and clothing (Fernie and Sparks, 2014). The quick response is the merit of the agile supply chain management and it implies that the companies rapidly adjust to consumers’ requests, based on IT tools and flexible manufacturing, used for providing the right products in the right places at the right time (Sheridan et al., 2006 in Hansson, 2011). QR is the tool that fast fashion companies employ for eliminating the uncertainty in forecasting process, from the moment of the second procurement (Netessine and Tang, 2009). QR is tightly related to the communication process. The agile management allows direct communication from consumer to all the supply chain partners, reducing lead times, the uncertainty and the complex chains structures (Lashen, 2012).
Along with QR, fast fashion also incorporates another significant component, which is enhanced design (ED). The enhanced design refers to the fashionable and trendy products, for which the customers are willing to pay full price, making it a certain investment for the retailers (Choi, 2014). Along with QR, ED reduces the risk that products remained unsold, speeding up the effectiveness of the fast fashion.
Returning to the supply chain approaches, it is considered that the merit of the agile supply chain management stays in the fact that the companies that approach this style “give to the consumer the good product in the good moment” (Tomachot, 2009, p. 12). Zara and H&M both achieve this objective; hence both adopt an agile supply chain management.
The agility of these companies stays in the way they organized their whole operations, taken as connected activities, which depend on one another. Information systems, organizational structures or logistic processes are areas that require flexibility and easy maneuverability (Tomachot, 2009). Compared, the focus of lean management is to eliminate the waste (Chi, 2006). At a closer look, it can be stated that H&M also adopts the lean supply chain management style, because it has the capacity if influencing its suppliers to reduce waste and the use of natural resources as much as possible. The company deployed sustainability and waste reduction policies such as reducing the water consumption and the chemicals for producing the fabrics required for the materials and it also recycles many of its materials such as hangers or packaging (H&M official website, n.d.).
Lean management also implies the elimination of all the unnecessary steps for reaching to the end product, a philosophy inspired from the Japanese business model, such as transportation, which also ads costs (Lashen, 2012). At this point, Zara is closer to the lean supply chain management, as it opts for in-house production instead of wasting time and financial resources on transportation.
Neither Zara nor H&M adopts a pure agile or lean supply chain management, as they both adjust their supply chain needs to the market request and to the suppliers’ requirements and potential, in order to be cost effective and in the same time market sensitive. Agility supports the downstream and leanness the upstream chain and together form the leagile supply chain (Fernie and Sparks, 2014).
Opportunities and Threats in the Developed and Developing Countries
The shifts in the social structures within developing countries such as China or India or the Eastern European countries, wherein the women become more financially independent represents a significant opportunity for the fast fashion to become even more popular and to develop their supply chains in the developing economies.
Moreover, the competition among the local suppliers for providing services to Western companies also create an opportunity for the fast companies such as H&M (whose manufacturing are mainly offshore) to gain from their offshore collaboration. When suppliers compete among themselves in countries such as China, wherein textiles represent almost a commodity, they tend to reduce prices. In this context, fast fashion companies will have the advantage of choosing the best price/quality offer, reducing their production costs.
On the other hand, a major threat for retailers and their supply chain stays in the availability of raw materials, which may affect the internal and offshore supply chains alike. The cotton production is predicted to decrease, while the demand is predicted to increase, being the main material used in textile and clothing industry (Wang et al., n.d). This condition would lead to an increase in the buying price of the cotton, which would also imply an increase in the end products, which will affect both the retailers and suppliers.
An increase in the end products, combined with the economic instability of the Eurozone, the main market of both Zara and H&M, would mean decreased consumption in the developed and developing countries from Eurozone. Decreased consumption in the Eurozone would imply an unwanted relaxation of the European suppliers and would require for the reorientation of the fast fashion companies on the economies that recover or were not touched by the economic crisis. The emergence of the Asian developing countries might represent an opportunity for H&M to focus its commercial activities on China and India and other developed and developing Asian economies. This transition might actually be easy for H&M, since most of its manufactures are located in Asia. The supply chain in Asian countries would need to be increased for the offshore production. For Zara, on the other hand, shifting its supply chain from the developed European countries to the developing countries in Asia might imply the reconfiguration of its business. Such reconfiguration would imply a threat for the suppliers in the developed countries and an opportunity to grow the global, Asian supply chain.
The social and economic condition indicate a predisposition for the fast fashion companies to concentrate their value chain in the offshore sourcing. However, the dependency on the offshore sourcing, especially on the Asian developing countries, might generate new threats for retailers, such as legal penalties for exploiting the workers.
The social, economic, political, legal environmental and technological conditions have influenced the evolution of the textile and clothing industry across time. Global sourcing trends have also been modeled based on these conditions, permitting various shifts in the volatile request and demand of fashion (Choi, 2014). The textile and clothing industry evolved from a basic commodity need, wherein people where buying clothes only when necessary, to buying clothes just as a caprice or to justify a social standard. Like this, fast fashion appeared for answering the increased request in consumers’ need to seasonally change collections. The intense demand for fashion facilitated the outsourcing for external suppliers. While H&M is the adept of this business philosophy with most of its manufactures based in underdeveloped Asian countries, Zara focuses its activity on internal suppliers mostly and the largest part of its factories is located in Europe. For adjusting to the intense and diverse demand for fashion products, both companies deploy specific supply chain management strategies, which denote a mix of agile and lean management style. The supply chain management of the two companies has similarities but also differences, entrenched in their business model and reflected by their approach to lean or agile management for their integrated work processes.
The supply chain of the fast fashion retailers might shift more and more towards the developing countries, because they are also expected to develop a higher buying capacity, overpassing the Eurozone. Also, the social shifts and the changes in the gender relations in the developing countries, with the increased financial independency of women also contribute to increasing the value chain focus towards the developing countries, serving customers in these countries, without transportation costs.
Fashion is an evergreen industry and continues to develop and to reinvent new styles and needs for consumers. As long as Zara and H&M catch the consumers’ need or are able to anticipate and to create new needs, the supply chain will recognize new organizations and approaches. Similarly, the outsourcing will enter new eras of adaptability to the buyers’ requests for satisfying the end customer.
Choi, T.M. 2014. Fast fashion systems: theories and applications. London: Taylor & Francis Group.
Chi, T. 2006. A study of relationships between business environment characteristics. Greensboro: The University of North Carolina.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. 2008. EU textiles and clothing sector: location decisions. Dublin: EMCC.
Fernie, J. and Sparks, L. 2014. Logistics and retail management. Philadelphia: Kogan Page Limited.
Gereffi, G. 2002. Outsourcing and changing patterns of international competition in the apparel commodity chain. Durham: Duke University.
Hapuarachchi, C.R. 2010 Zara, H&M and Benneton supply chain management. [Online] Available at < http://www.slideshare.net/hdchachi/zara-hm-and-benneton-supply-chain-management?related=1 >. [Accessed 30 December 2014].
Hansson, M. 2011. What impact has a fast fashion strategy on fashion companies’ supply chain management? Halmstad University.
H&M. n.d. Reduce, reuse, recycle. [online] Available at < http://about.hm.com/en/About/sustainability/commitments/reduce-waste.html>. [Accesed 30 December 2014].
Lashen, M. 2012. Supply chain management in fast fashion. Helsinki: Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences.
Mihm, B. 2010. “Fast fashion in a flat world: global sourcing strategies”. International Business & Economics Research Journal, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 55-64.
Netessine, S. and Tang, C.S. 2009. Consumer-driven demand and operations management models. New York: Springer Science.
Sull, D. and Turconi, S. 2008. “Fast fashion lessons” Journal Compilation London Business School.
Thomachot, E. 2009. Agile and lean supply chain in fashion retailing. Manchester: University of Manchester.
Van Voss, L.H., Hiemestra-Kuperus, E. and Merkerk E.v.N. 2010. The Ashgate companion to the history f textile workers, 1650-2000. 2010. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Limited.
Walsh, E.K.L. 2008. The outsourcing of apparel and textiles: manufacturing sites selection. ProQuest.
Wang, X, Tan, T, Kao, Y, V and Shen, F, n.d., Zara’s history. [online] Available a < http://www.sfu.ca/~sheppard/478/syn/1123/Synopsis6.pdf>. Accessed [2 January 2015].
Zara official website. N.d. [online] Available at < http://www.zara.com/ie/en/company-c11112.html>. [Accessed 30 December 2014].
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