Example Of Measurement And Evaluation For Sport And Exercise Physiology Report

Type of paper: Report

Topic: Fitness, Education, Sports, Exercise, Body, Cardiology, Medicine, Heart

Pages: 7

Words: 1925

Published: 2021/02/19

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Abstract

Cardiovascular ailment is presently one of the primary causes of mortality in the United States. Cardiovascular fitness is defined as the capacity of the body to absorb, carry and utilize oxygen during exercise or when performing strenuous activities. In this activity, we examine the cardiorespiratory fitness measure of the participants based on the list of data given. VO2 max is a dependable measure for the assessment of a person’s cardiorespiratory fitness. Exercises are done to test the person’s cardiorespiratory fitness. Examples of exercise include treadmill, cycle ergometry, and a lot more. A total of one hundred sixty seven volunteers (34 females, 133 males) joined the study. A cycle ergometry test was performed in the study. The results were interpreted using the descriptive statistics. Statistical results such as ANOVA and regression analysis were also applied. The results showed that that there is a significant difference in the body mass index of the participants and their VO2 Max consumption. The higher the body mass index, the lower will be the VO2 max values.
Keywords: Cardiorespiratory fitness, BMI, VO2 max

INTRODUCTION

Cardiovascular ailment is presently one of the primary causes of mortality in the United States (Cdc.gov 2005). A sedentary way of life, together with increased cholesterol level in the blood, smoking, and hypertension, is a modifiable risk component for heart diseases (Cdc.gov 2005). In the United States, only a quarter of the entire population meets the recommended physical activity described in the Surgeon General’s Report (Cdc.gov 2005).
The American College of Sports Medicine defines cardiovascular fitness as the capacity of the body to absorb, carry and utilize oxygen during exercise or when performing strenuous activities (Dale 2013). Cardiovascular fitness is the end result of the muscles, heart, lungs, and blood functioning together while doing an activity (Dale 2013). There are various ways to measure cardiovascular fitness. The standard of measurement for cardiovascular fitness is VO2 max or the maximum amount of oxygen a person can take via the lungs, and distribute in the different parts of the body through the blood vessels and the heart and then utilize by the muscles (Dale 2013).
In the past versions of the National Health and Nutrition Examination or NHANES, no direct cardiovascular fitness valuation components have been contained in the data collection. However, in the current version of NHANES, a cardiovascular fitness element will be included (Cdc.gov 2005). Other terminologies that can be associated with cardiovascular fitness are the following: aerobic power, maximal oxygen consumption, maximal oxygen uptake, and VO2 max (Cdc.gov 2005).
According to Dale (2013), cardiovascular fitness can be evaluated through the use of a series of tests, such as step-up tests, treadmill tests, rowing and cycling tests. Other components, including aerobic endurance, are included in cardiovascular fitness. A maximal treadmill test is the most effective technique of determining cardiovascular fitness. By gathering and examining expired air throughout the test, VO2 max can be directly measured (Cdc.gov 2005). This form of assessment is performed in a clinical situation and is enormously costly and time consuming. On the other hand, a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is characteristically used when performing a maximal test (Cdc.gov 2005). Therefore, maximal treadmill assessment can be employed to identify coronary heart disease and cardiac arrhythmias induced by stress (Cdc.gov 2005).
In assessing the cardiorespiratory fitness of the person, it is important to take into account the person’s body mass index and its VO2 max. Body mass index is the generally used gauge of weight measurement (Rosenberg, 2015). The measurement of body mass index is between 18.5 and 24.9 for a normal weight (Rosenberg, 2015). On the other hand, a body mass index greater than 25 indicates being overweight. In the event that the body mass index goes beyond 30, that means that the person is considered obese (Rosenberg, 2015). High value of body mass index measurements have been correlated with decreased stages of physical fitness, such as decreased VO2 max.VO2 max is also a dependable measure for assessment of a person’s cardiorespiratory fitness. Such method is only applied when doing certain exercise and is conducted through the use of a sampling test or examination of air expired and the ventilation measurement. Common exercise mechanisms utilized in measuring cardiovascular fitness include running and walking, treadmill, or cycle ergometry.
VO2max can be evaluated using direct or indirect processes (Jurca et al. 2005, p. 185). Direct measures offer the most accurate evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness and are acquired by ventilatory gas examination at maximal effort during a classified workout ergometry test. Indirect approaches assess VO2max from longest exercise duration, heart rate responses, or the peak workload attained during maximal or submaximal exercise ergometry, or the quantity of time needed to jog, walk, or run a stated distance (Jurca et al. 2005, p. 185). Nevertheless, both indirect and direct approaches of evaluating cardiorespiratory fitness may be unreasonable for fixed use in most situations.
A global group of specialists in the aspects of physical activity and fitness valuation, preventive medicine, epidemiology, as well as clinical exercise analysis studied the accuracy and viability of a range of approaches that might be utilized to calculate cardiorespiratory fitness in healthcare settings (Jurca et al. 2005, p. 185). The researchers concluded that the calculation of cardiorespiratory fitness from non–exercise examination regression models was most suitable for extensive use in several healthcare situations if enough validity was acquired with this technique of assessment. In addition, non–exercise assessment models assess VO2max from the relapse of maximal oxygen uptake measured on independent variables recognized to be prognostic of cardiorespiratory fitness, including body size, gender, age, resting HR, as well as self-reported customary levels of physical activity (Jurca et al. 2005, p. 185). This technique evades the problem of exercise assessment, while offering a sensibly precise valuation of cardiorespiratory fitness. The objective of this report is to critically appraise two independent ways of measuring cardiorespiratory fitness. The NASA or Johnson Space Center predicts the VO2 maximum in the absence of doing any exercise (Jurca et al., 2005; see also Jackson, 1990).

METHODS

Subjects
One hundred sixty seven volunteers (34 females, 133 males) with a mean age of 20±2 years and a body mass of 24.52 ± 3.53 kg (males) and 22.80 ± 2.39 kg (females) were enlisted after distributing informed consent.

Research Design

The Austrian Cardiological Society emphasizes the need for participants of any study concerning assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness to undergo proper medical screening prior to engaging in any exercise tests, particularly the strenuous ones. Such initial examination is made of an anamnesis including blood pressure irregularities, cardiac ailments, heart and lungs auscultation, blood pressure measurement in sitting position, and heart examination or electrocardiogram in a face-up lying position. Following ten minutes in a face-up lying position in a silent surrounding, the first observed resting heart rate was recorded. In addition, the subjects were asked to complete the ergometric exercise test while respiration and ventilation were continually assessed. The activity tests comprised of cycle ergometry with an augmentation of 25 Watts/2 minutes, side effect constrained by tiredness and cadence autonomy (Haber et al. 1978).
In the book Exercise Physiology by Edward Howley and Scott Powers (2007), the complexity and cost of laboratory analysis make it unfeasible for a health club situation. VO2max will be measured in a laboratory set up through the use of a mask device that gauges oxygen consumption. The test subject executes exercise that slowly becomes more powerful. VO2 is observed and the test is halted when VO2 remains the same. The measured rate of oxygen consumption, or VO2, at the end of the assessment is the VO2max.

RESULTS

Statistical Analyses
The standard deviation and arithmetic mean were utilized for descriptive statistics. In study the whether the participants’ running speeds are in correlation with the Wmax and the VO2max, a simple regression analysis is conducted. In addition the contribution of age, heart rate at rest, and body mass for predicting cardiorespiratory fitness was studied through the use of multiple regressions. A test is considered statistically significant at p-value<0.001. ANOVA will also be used to examine the significance in the differences of values of the participants’ body mass index and VO2 Max.

Outcome

The regression analysis result for body mass index and Jackson et al. equation is illustrated below.
It can be recalled that NASA JSC (Jackson et al., 1990) is normally taken at rest or in the absence of exercise. The multiple regression of 0.13 suggests that there is minimal relationship between the body mass index and the VO2 max at rest. A regression square value of 0.017 suggests that only 1.7% can be explained by the x values. Moreover, only 1.7% fit the model. A standard error of 6.35 is an approximation of the error in standard deviation.

DISCUSSION

The results of the study show that the body mass index of the participant is correlated to the person’s VO2 max consumption. The ANOVA results above show that there is a significant difference in the body mass index of the participants and their VO2 Max consumption. This is further supported by the results of the regression analysis. A regression analysis is a tool used in statistics to determine the relationship that exists between variables. The equation above shows that the coefficient for VO2 Max is 58.023 ml/kg/min. The coefficient suggests that for every additional 58.023 ml/kg/min in VO2 Max, it can be expected that the body mass index will increase by an average of 58.023 ml/kg/min in VO2 Max. The blue fitted line vividly presents the same information. If the line is moved to the left or right along the x-axis by an amount that signifies a one ml/kg/min alteration in VO2 Max, the fitted line increases or decreases by 58.023 ml/kg/min.
Cardiorespiratory fitness is a measure of the lung’s and heart’s usefulness. A solid heart effectively pumps blood at an enduring rate. As a rule, lower circulatory strain and a lower resting heartbeat rate show sound cardiovascular capacity, while high lung limit in conjunction with great blood oxygenation demonstrates great respiratory fitness. Specialists can utilize a few tests to gauge cardiorespiratory wellness, and patients can enhance their execution on these tests by expanding their activity rate and taking out unfortunate way of life decisions, for example, smoking.
A treadmill stress test is the most popular test of cardiovascular wellness. For the test, the participant gets on a treadmill and a specialist screens the indispensable signs as the participant walk and run at dynamically quicker rates. Contingent on the participant’s fitness history, the specialist may screen the oxygen fitness. Amid this test, an attendant or specialist may just take the key signs at different stages all through the test. When one completes the treadmill, the specialist will likewise verify to what extent it takes the heart rate to come back to ordinary. A slower return for the most part shows lower cardiorespiratory fitness.
Specialists now and again utilize varied forms of exercise tests rather than stress tests to conduct an examination of the person’s cardiorespiratory fitness and additionally general physical wellness. The specialist, for instance, may request that the participant takes a stroll to the extent that one can in six minutes, and afterward measure the essential signs after this walk. The specialist will then issue the evaluation of the general fitness based upon the distance secured, the key signs and the time of time it takes for the fundamental signs to come back to its initial value after the test.
Lung dispersion testing is another strategy to quantify cardiorespiratory wellness. A lung dispersion test gauges how well the lungs diffuse gasses. High blood oxygenation and proficient gas dissemination firmly connect with great cardiorespiratory wellbeing. A specialist or medical attendant places a clasp on the nose of the participant, and then requests that the participant breathe in a tracer gas through the mouth. The participant must hold the breath for a couple of seconds, and afterward breathe out into a machine. The specialist will then test exhalation to decide how the quantity of the tracer gas consumed. Higher assimilation is generally associated with better cardiorespiratory capacity.

Limitations of the Study

One of the limitations of this study is the unbalanced number of population for both genders. It is apparent that in this study, the number of male participants is three times the number of female participants. Moreover, it must be noted that men and women have different average VO2 max. The average VO2 max for women is 33 ml of oxygen for every kg of body weight per minute while the average VO2 max for men is 42 ml of oxygen for every kg of body weight per minute.

Recommendations

A good representative sample of participants will render a better and more plausible result for this study. If the main objective of the study is to provide the difference in the measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness, using both group and genders would entail equal distribution of experimental methods and results.

CONCLUSION

The body mass index of a person is one of the measures of weight. A greater value of body mass index has been associated with reduced stages of physical fitness, including reduction in the VO2 max. In the study conducted, it has been shown that the body mass index of the participant coincides with the hypothesis that it is correlated with VO2 max which is a measure of physical fitness.

References

Cdc.gov, (2005). Cardiovascular Fitness Procedures Manual. National Health and Nutrition Examination.
Dale, P. (2013). What Does Cardiovascular Fitness Mean? | LIVESTRONG.COM. [online] Livestrong.com. Available at: http://www.livestrong.com/article/286610-what-does-cardiovascular-fitness-mean/ [Accessed 11 Apr. 2015].
Greenhaff, P. (1989). Cardiovascular fitness and thermoregulation during prolonged exercise in man. British Journal Of Sports Medicine, 23(2), 109-114. doi:10.1136/bjsm.23.2.109
Jackson, A S. et al.(1990) 'Prediction Of Functional Aerobic Capacity Without Exercise Testing'. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 22.6: 863. Web.
Jurca, R., Jackson, A., LaMonte, M., Morrow, J., Blair, S., Wareham, N., Haskell, W., van Mechelen, W., Church, T., Jakicic, J. and Laukkanen, R. (2005). Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness Without Performing Exercise Testing. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 29(3), pp.185-193.
Kokkinos, P. (2014). Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Exercise, and Blood Pressure. Hypertension, 64(6), 1160-1164. doi:10.1161/hypertensionaha.114.03616
Powers, S., & Howley, E. (2007). Exercise physiology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Rosenberg, W. (2015). How Does BMI Affect VO2 Max? | LIVESTRONG.COM. LIVESTRONG.COM. Retrieved 11 April 2015, from http://www.livestrong.com/article/356265-how-does-bmi-affect-vo2-max/
Schaub, V., & Kern, M. (1999). CHANGES IN CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS PARAMETERS WITH DIETING. Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise, 31(Supplement), S183. doi:10.1097/00005768-199905001-00815
Shephard, R. (2012). Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Classification of Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Mortality.Yearbook Of Sports Medicine, 2012, 233-235. doi:10.1016/j.yspm.2011.08.035
Wilkinson, W., & Church, T. (2001). FITNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD) RISK IN OBESITY. Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise, 33(5), S5. doi:10.1097/00005768-200105001-00025

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