Example Of Research Paper On Cellular Versus Humoral Immunity
Cellular immunity is an immune response in which the protection function of immunization is attributed to cells. It occurs when phagocytes and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes are activated to respond to an antigen in the body. The centrality of CD4 cells and T cells in the prevention of pathogens cannot be gainsaid. In cellular immunity, cytotoxic T cells use cytokines to kill apoptosis (Cooper & Khader, 2008). Humoral immunity is the immune response in which the protection function of immunization is attributed to the humor. Macromolecules in extracellular fluids mediate humoral immunity. These fluids include antibodies, peptides and complement proteins. The processes that accompany the production of antibody and accessory define humoral immunity.
Structure and function
Cellular immunity offer protection for the body through activation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. These lymphocytes are antigen specific. Thus, they induce apoptosis within the various cells in the body. In so doing, they display epitopes of foreign antigens. The foreign antigens include cells that are infected by virus, cancerous cells as well as cells with bacteria. Cellular immunity also stimulates cells to produce cytokines (Cooper & Khader, 2008). These cytokines facilitates both adaptive immune responses and innate immune responses. In addition, this immunity response activates macrophages that kill disease causing microorganisms in the body. Cellular immunity is an effective way of removing cells infected by fungi, cancers and bacteria in the body.
Humoral immunity is responsible for formation of germinal center, affinity maturation, generation of memory cell and isotype switching. In addition, it initiates the function of antibodies that facilitate neutralization and elimination of pathogens. Humoral immunity facilitates opsonin promotion of phagocytosis. An example that can clarify the role of humoral immunity is the function of B cells. These cells generate antibodies against soluble antigens. The elements required for B cell activation include clonal proliferation and terminal differentiation. Activation of B cells is contingent upon type 1 T cell-independent activation, T cell-dependent activation and type 2 T cell-independent activation. In the process of activation, a cell presents a processed antigen for priming in a T helper cell (Li et al., 2015). The release of cytokines by T cell occurs when a B cell presents the same antigen to the primed T helper cell.
Tips for remembering and recalling
This topic can be remembered by be developing a culture of reading. There are so many pieces of literature on immunity. This information can guide a reader into understanding these two types of immunity responses.
Application of the topic to real life
This topic can be applied into real life to provide immunity against various pathogens. Cellular immunity and humoral immunity both help in killing of harmful disease causing microorganism by killing cells infected by fungi, viruses and intracellular bacteria. Cellular immunity and humoral immunity are used during immunization events to reduce the effects of pathogens in the life of human beings.
Current research on topic
Current research on this topic includes the use of antibodies to generate strong immune responses. This research is undergoing clinical trials for cancer immunotherapy (Li et al., 2015).
Why the topic is important
The centrality of this topic in medical practice cannot be gainsaid. This topic provides a platform upon which further research and development on immunity responses can be advanced. Researchers interested in the field of medicine can develop more innovations stemming from the useful concepts identified both cellular and humoral immunity.
Cooper, A. M., & Khader, S. A. (2008). The role of cytokines in the initiation, expansion, and control of cellular immunity to tuberculosis. Immunological reviews, 226(1), 191-204.
Li, J., Ahmet, F., Sullivan, L. C., Brooks, A. G., Kent, S. J., Rose, R., & Caminschi, I. (2015). Antibodies targeting Clec9A promote strong humoral immunity without adjuvant in mice and non‐human primates. European journal of immunology.