Example Of Research Proposal On Tourist’s Preference Of Cheap Hotel During Their Holiday
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Consumers are always rational. The tourism and hospitality industry is one that continues to grow due to increased holiday destination sites. The number of hotels has also substantially increased. There are different types of hotels ranging from one star hotels to five star hotels. Tourists are always faced with a hard time trying to decide which hotel best suits them and which provides them services worth the value of their money.
Research Aim and Rationale
This research aims at establishing the preference on cheap hotels that tourists have during their holiday. The purpose of the study is essentially to determine how and why tourists choose cheap hotels over expensive hotels when they visit various tourist destinations across the world. The study is based on the rationale that the number of expensive hotels continues to increase while little is being done to establish the consumer choices in terms of hotel preference. Notably, the basis of the research is the continued increase in accommodation in less expensive hotels and the need to establish the influencing factors towards such scenario.
First, the study seeks to establish the influencing factors towards the choice of cheap hotels by tourists during their holiday. The research also aims at establishing the rate of accommodation in cheap hotels compared to expensive hotels during holidays. Furthermore, the study seeks to determine the kind of services that tourists receive in both expensive and cheap hotels in relation to the amount of money they pay during their holidays. Lastly, the study seeks to investigate the competitiveness between cheap hotels and expensive hotels and the reaction when the rate of accommodation in cheap hotels goes higher compared to that of expensive hotels.
The following are the questions that the research seeks to answer;
What influences the choices of a hotel?
What is the rate of hotel accommodation and booking in both cheap and expensive hotels?
What are the services being offered in both types of hotels?
Are they worth the amount of money tourists pay for?
What is the level of customer satisfaction in both types of hotels?
What is the level of competition between the two types of hotels?
What is the resultant reaction with respect to the trend?
Significance of the Research
The research is significant in a number of ways. First, it provides hotel managers with vital information that can be useful in coming up with strategies to facilitate the attraction of more customers. Furthermore, the study is vital in the sense that information presented can help guide tourists and holiday lovers in the choices they make. Significantly, it is important to note that few studies have directly investigated the topic. Hence, it will also provide a framework upon which other studies can be conducted and also improved upon. In essence, the significance of the research is not only manifested in the information provided, but, also as a study itself.
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Introduction to Literature Review
The tourism and hospitality industries are considered as world employers. Characterized by large number of service providers, the industry has experienced massive growth and development (Shoka, 2006). There has been an increase in the number of tourism destinations and the corresponding increase in the number of the hotels. Significantly, there are many types of hotels ranging from one star hotels to five star hotels that offer services to tourists. There are few studies that have been conducted to establish why tourists prefer cheap hotels than expensive hotels. This literature review explores the extent to which the topic has been researched on.
2.2 Main Body (with Headings and Sub-headings)
Hotels offer accommodation and basic services to tourists. Normally, it is upon the tourist's discretion to decide which hotel they go to. As much as hotels may advertise themselves, still the customer is the one to make the decision to get into that hotel or not. China has seen its tourism and hospitality industry grow to over the past few years. Correspondingly, the number of hotels has also skyrocketed to meet the high demand that has been noted (Kutzer, 102, 2009). Small hotels have seen the number of tourists rising every holiday season despite the basic services that they offer. Most tourists prefer the small hotels citing the amount of money being charged in expensive hotels as too much and not worth the services they receive (Shoka, 2006). However, others have cited the fact that they go to cheap hotels because their friend or relatives have also chosen the cheap hotels (Proust, Angelakis & Drakos, 2009).
Notably, hotels continue to compete to attract most of the customers to visit the region for leisure purposes. Regardless of this, tourists are basing their choices of cheap hotels on the amount of money that is charged. Studies conducted in Dubai noted that 70% of tourists visit a holiday destination unwary of the kind of services they will be offered (Proust, Angelakis & Drakos, 2009). Hence, when they reach a destination, choosing a hotel is done haphazardly, almost favoring the cheap hotels. Some tourists choose a hotel based on recommendations and reviews they receive especially on the internet (Shoka, 2006). Nevertheless, few studies have sought to answer the question as to why these preferences are made in favor of cheap hotels. China, for instance, has a rich culture that is characterized by traditional foods, clothes, music and, above all, a great sense of technology (Mercado, 258, 2002). Hence, if such services are being provided in both types of hotels, then the question remains; why is it so? Furthermore, at a glance, expensive hotels seem to have taken the Chinese tourism market by storm (Proust, Angelakis & Drakos, 2009). The competition does not seem to favor cheap and small hotels. Nevertheless, the trend seems to be shifting especially noting the fact that the number of small hotels is also on the rise. It is, therefore, worth to investigate the cause of the preferences, the competition rate and the influencing factors.
2.3 Conclusion of Literature Review
Conspicuously, the amount of information that is available from previous studies on the topic of investigation is minute. Less has been done to establish the influencing factors behind the preferences that tourists make in terms of hotel choices. The choice of a cheap hotel has been associated with the fact that expensive hotels offer highly charged services that are worth less in cheap hotels. Thus, there is a need to conduct more exploration and investigation into the research topic. This substantiates the conduction of the study and furthermore, lays the basis for making conclusions and the framework for understanding the topic even more.
3.1 Research Approach and Design
The research approach that the study will employ is deductive. This is because, findings, generalizations and conclusions will be retrieved from the data collection strategies that will employed. The researcher will infer information by different means. The deductive approach is the most suitable approach compared to the inductive approach in relation to the type of questions that the research aims at answering (Qualitative Research). In most cases, it should be noted that, a research approach is selected basing on the kind of questions the study seeks to answer and the research objectives.
The study will employ the survey type of method. The survey method specifically focuses on investigating a particular scenario and coming up with information that answers the research questions (McNeil, 4, 2010). The topic being investigated meets this criterion. The study seeks to investigate why tourists prefer cheap hotels and the rate at which the same is being experienced in expensive hotels. The survey method is significant in exploring an issue as it offers data collection methods that are investigative in nature and provide information that can be directly translated to the questions being answered. With the survey method, the objectives will be easily met, and the research questions answered effectively.
3.3 Research Methodology and Tools
The study will employ both the qualitative and quantitative approach. The research will make use of both qualitative data and quantitative data. The tools that will correspondingly be used for data collection purposes are the questionnaire method and the interview method (Qualitative Research). The questionnaire method will be used to collect quantitative data while the interview method will be used to collect qualitative data. Questionnaire questions will be designed effectively so that the appropriate information is retrieved. On the other hand, interview questions will also be designed and framed to suit the information that is needed and relevant to answer the research questions. As noted earlier, this study is investigative and hence, investigative approaches should be employed when collecting data that is related to the research (Qualitative Research). Thus, the primary data collection tools mentioned above are the most appropriate when conducting this research.
3.4.1 Identifying Population and Research Site
Notably, the study needs to be conducted in an area that that has quite a large number of holiday destinations with a significant number of both cheap and expensive hotels. This will be done to ascertain the validity of the conclusions that will be made. In this regards, the study will be conducted in China. Of late, China has become a popular tourist destination country, featuring a significant number of holiday destinations. One favourite tourist destination site is the Great Chinese Wall. In China, the number of hotels has risen significantly especially with the increase tourism activity in the country. There are both cheap and expensive hotels in China offering international services including traditional Chinese meals and other services. Hong Kong, for instance, has seen an increase in the number of tourists visiting various sites in the city including the famous Disneyland Hong Kong. The study will be conducted among tourists who visit China and the hotels that accommodate and offer their services to these tourists. In essence, China makes up the research site tourists who visit China and the hotels that accommodate them make up the research population from which the sample unit will be established.
3.4.2 Sampling Strategy
The study will involve probability sampling where all members of the study population do not have equal chances of being selected. This is because, there are different types of tourists, and again the number of hotels is large. Hence, non-random sampling will ensure that data collected is representative of the study population and is valid enough for the researcher to make any generalizations. In random sampling, always human judgement is used to guide the process of selecting the study sample units. It is ideal especially when the sample covers a large geographical area like in the case of the study. Under the non-random sampling strategy, the quota sampling method will be employed to ascertain accessibility and judgmental issues such that sample units chosen for study are representative of the target population.
3.5 Ethical Implications
It is significant when conducting research that ethical issues be given maximum considerations. In conducting research, there are various issues that the researcher is required to uphold at all circumstances. First, the researcher will ensure that the privacy and confidentiality of the participants are upheld. Names will be censored, and information made anonymous. The researcher will not reveal any sensitive information or any controversial material to the public or any unauthorized parties. During the study, the researcher’s actions will also not be inclined to cause any harm or potential offence to the subjects of study. This will be upheld during the collection of the information, during the analysis and the publication or reporting of the information. Fundamentally, before the research, the researcher will have to obtain full authority from the relevant legal systems in China before embarking on the study. This will guarantee the legality of the study and provide the researcher with a license allowing him/her to continue with the study. Always a researcher must obtain informed consent from legal systems before conducting a study.
A timeline is significant to ensure that the research is completed in time and that all necessary aspects of it have been undertaken. It demonstrates the individual stages that the researcher has to go through to come up with the required material.
In summary, this study is of great essence. Investigating an area that has had little or no exploration is very much important. It is believed that; with the appropriate and adequate resources, primary data can be retrieved through the questionnaire and interview methods to ascertain the validity of any conclusions that are likely to be made. Furthermore, there is confidence that the research objectives will be met effectively and to a level that answers the questions that the study seeks to answer. Lastly, the study and information presented in the study will be crucial for both hotel managers and tourists
Kutzer, Diana, et al. 2009. Identifying tourists' preferences for Aboriginal tourism product features: implications for a northern First Nation in British Columbia. Journal of Ecotourism Vol. 8(2) pp 99-114
McNeill, P. Patrick. (2010). Research Methods. Chicago: Psychology Press.
Mecardo, Leida. 2002. Assessing Tourists' Preferences for Recreational and Environmental Management Programs Central to the Sustainable Development of a Tourism Area in the Dominican Republic. Environment, Development and Sustainability. 2002, Volume 4(3) pp 253-278
Proust, Remi, Angelakis, George & Drakos, Periklis. 2009. A study of tourist’ attitudes and preferences for local products in Crete and changes induced by the current economic crisis. Paper prepared for presentation at the 113th EAAE Seminar A resilient European food industry and food chain in a challenging world, Chania, Crete, Greece, September 03 – 06, 2009.
Qualitative Research: The Interagency Advisory Panel on Research Ethics (PRE).[Online] Available at <http://www.pre.ethics.gc.ca/eng/policy-politique/initiatives/tcps2-eptc2/chapter10-chapitre10/> [Accessed on 16th April, 2015].
Shoka, Daisuke. 2006. Analysis of Tourist Preferences for the Development of Ecotourism in Uaxactún, Guatemala, Using Choice Experiments. University of Michigan.
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