Free Research Paper About Should There Be Stronger Regulation For E-Cigarette And Other Health Synthetic Nicotine Products?
During the course of the past ten years, the concept of the damaging effects of tobacco has moved professionals to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with the chemical. The movement for reducing tobacco harm has received a growing number of discussion and attention among scientists and health professionals (Parascandola,2011).
Tobacco is the main health concern, and that smokers with grave mental illness are progressively catching credit as a priority and differential group. The grave or serious mental illness has been identified in the study of Prochaska and Grana (2) as the condition of acquiring a psychiatric condition that inhibits or restricts some or all major actions of an individual. Considered as a widespread among individuals of today, smoking with mental illness was reported to occupy 40 to 60% of the population as compared to the 19% in the general group. Although this trend is the current case for smokers with mental illness, Prochaska and Grana state that smoking prevalence among individuals with mental illness has motioned downward gradually as related to the general group. This event proposes that the national policies to control tobacco have not yet effectively reached this group.
As an example, most psychiatric groups remain exceptionally exempted from government hospital smoking regulations that began in the year 1992. The effects were essential and required attention. Persons with SMI or serious mental illness were dying at the age of 25 years on average. Precipitately, the leading reported causes of death are serious illnesses that were mostly caused by tobacco (Prochaska and Grana, 2). Tobacco smoke causes the metabolisms of psychiatric medicines go to certain blood levels that would cause the need for higher degrees of dosage.
As more of these private and public institutions restrict secondhand smoke; mostly in parks, workplaces and restaurants. Addiction to tobacco functions to progressively stigmatize and isolate smokers with mental illness (Prochaska and Grana, 2). In addition, the current costs of tobacco are higher that almost amounts to nearly a third of the monthly income of smokers with assessed schizophrenia. Most smokers with grave mental illness want to quit and that tobacco treatment proceedings have manifested effective treatment in studies of smokers diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder, major depression, and schizophrenia.
Evidence show that computer-assisted interferences and treatments designed to help these smokers quit, involve the use of nicotine replacement therapy (bupropion and varenicline) and cognitive-behavioral interventions. More importantly, these interventions have aided these patients stop smoking and that their mental health recovery, long-term sobriety, and cognitive functioning has not been significantly affected.
Of course, not all smokers however show the readiness to stop smoking. Those individuals, on the other hand, who are ready to quit and those who have somehow started quitting, have relapsed. Rates of long-term quitting play around at about 25% for smokers regardless of their condition. On the other hand, smokers, who are not properly helped by treatments, will look for commercial alternatives. One new alternative to smoking that is slowly gaining a high degree of attention are e-cigarettes. With its prevalent widening market and advertising, users of this device grow. People, who use the product, are not only individuals with serious mental illness, but also those of the general population who just want to quit smoking (Prochaska and Grana, 2).
Electronic cigarettes or the e-cigarettes are technical devices that give vapor. Pokhrel et al. (121) discuss that this vapor coming out from the e-cigarette may be inhaled, the same as that smoke from tobacco is acquired. This vapor or gas is unconstrained during the time that a liquid or the e-juice is exposed to heat. This e-juice is a solution composed of vegetable glycerin, propylene glycol, flavor concentrates and nicotine (some e-cigarettes without nicotine are also sold in the market).
The short-term and long-term health effects of e-cigarettes and the consequences of e-cigarettes over the tobacco use behavior are not yet well studied because of its novelty. However, despite the fact that it is a new product in the market, the prevalence of e-cigarette appears to have undergone a fast growing number in the United States. It is estimated that eight percent of US adults have most possibly tried e-cigarettes, and 1.4 percent are most probably current users. E-cigarette usage is significantly higher among adults who smoke cigarettes. 32% was reported to have tried e-cigarettes, and 6% of these adult smokers were reported to be current users of the product. In addition, young adults have been discovered to most likely use e-cigarettes (Pokhrel et al., 121).
Because of the growing number of e-cigarette smokers in the country, they have been known or called as e-smokers or vapors. This trend has slowly gained popularity and has spread among the high-income, urban group and the youth around the world. The attractive flavors, the uniqueness of the technology, and the attention grabbing marketing strategy that claims e-cigarettes are non-toxic than traditional cigarettes appeal to the youth. Its major claim of helping smoking cessation grab the attention of most of the urban population (Meo and Al Asiri, 3315).
Despite the major considerations of public health departments, e-cigarette smoking still continues to gain popularity and acceptance by more customers especially the youth groups. The scenario mentioned is evidenced by the growing exponential sale. The e-cigarette industry is slowly growing more and more and has the possibility of drawing nearer with the traditional tobacco sales in approximately a decade’s time. There are approximately more than 200 e-cigarette brands found existing in the market. Reported sales for the e-cigarette were approximately reported to reach $3 billion USD in the year 2013. It is forecasted that the global e-cigarette sales might increase to $10 billion USD by the year 2017.
E-cigarettes are mainly created to replicate conventional cigarettes in appearance shape and size. But, some of the created e-cigarettes were created a little bit shorter or longer than the usual cigarettes and are comparable to fashion accessories like the lipstick, pen, or USB sticks. The main contents of most e-cigarettes contain battery and e-juice compartments, flow sensors, and aerosol generators. The materials used to create the product include steel, silver, ceramics, metals, fibers, plastics, rubber, spume6, lithium made batteries and aluminum.
According to Meo and Al Asiri (3315), these cigarettes may involve risks of explosion and fire. Also according to Meo and Al Asiri’s findings in their study of the product, the e-cigarettes may cause vomiting, dizziness, headaches and nausea. There may sometimes be an occurrence of shivering, choking, upper respiratory tract irritation, and burn injuries. Events such as dryness of the mucous membrane and eyes, dry cough, airway inflammation, decreased exhaled nitric oxide (NO), pro-inflammatory mediators, synthesis in the lungs and risk of lung cancer are expected. These were the results of their discovery that the e-cigarette contains a liquid that is made up of nicotine with a variety of flavors that go as many as fruits and chocolate. The nicotine contained in e-cigarettes are mainly carried on consumable cartridges that are available in different concentrations that can be adjusted to different levels of nicotine that might suit the preferences of the user. This chemical may pose greater risks of nicotine poison while ingesting and inhaling the liquid. The device itself strengthens the temperature of the liquid in the cartridge and turns it into vapor through an aerosol smoke that the user breathes into the lungs passing through the mouth.
It is important to note that there is a huge variety in the components of e-cigarettes. The liquid component of these products is formulated to contain a mixture of chemicals, one of which is nicotine. The chemical components that are currently in the e-cigarette refills, aerosols and cartridges contain tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). There are also components of phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), solvent carriers, drugs (amino tadalafil and rimonabant) and tobacco alkaloids. These compounds according to Meo and Al Asiri (3316) are very harmful or are most probably harmful constituents for the body. At present, studies suggest that the combined nicotine in the aerosol differs by brands. There are some containing 0.5 to 15.4 mg per 300 puffs. On the other hand, some cartridges contain 27 to 43 μg of nicotine for every 100 ml of puffs. This scenario is considered harmful and almost damaging to an individual’s system.
People believe that e-cigarettes are safer than the traditional cigarettes. They are also considered to be less addictive than the conventional ones as they are marketed with these claims. This claim however is being contested with the study from Meo and Al Asiri. At present, public awareness gradually spreads among the public about the dangers of e-smoking. The nicotine found in e-cigarettes is easily absorbed by the mucous membranes, the skin, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory membrane and the skin. In addition, this product’s fluid poisoning coverage were mostly found in children wherein they were able to acquire the smog from the e-cigarette through inhalation, ingestion, ocular exposure and dermal exposure.
As per the recommendations of Meo and Al Asiri, it is suggested that the e-cigarette products and smoking the product is mainly not safe. Therefore, the e-cigarettes should be restricted in closed public areas and removed from children and the youth (3318).
Because of such findings, and a number more, it was noted by the British Medical Journal that the World Health Organization now calls government bodies to ban the e-cigarette to for use indoors. The recommendations were included in a report on the electronic nicotine delivery systems that contended that a tougher policy or regulation of the devices must be imposed for the good of the public health (2).
According to the report from the World Health Organization, legal procedures must be undergone to end the use of e-cigarettes in public spaces and also in the work area. Evidences suggest that the exhaled aerosol from e-cigarettes heightened the contextual air degree of some toxins, nicotine, and other particles. The organization also called for the restrictions of e-cigarette promotions, advertisements, and sponsorship to ensure that it does not aim the youth and non-smokers (British Medical Journal, 2).
The report suggested designing policies with four goals to direct it. First is to stop the elevation of the products to the youth and non-smokers. Second the policies must lessen potential health risks to the current users and non-users of the electronic cigarette. Third, policies must promote cessation of false health declarations of e-cigarettes. Lastly, regulations must control efforts of commercial and other conferred interests of those in the tobacco industry (British Medical Journal, 2).
With this report from the World Health Organization, it is evident that e-cigarettes have alarming effects to smokers and non-smokers alike. These damaging effects warrant the attention of different governing bodies to control and fully regulate the rising popularity of e-cigarettes. If this goes unnoticed users of this harmful product will continue to grow despite the alarming results of different studies.
British Medical Journal. "WHO calls for ban on e-cigarette use indoors." British Medical Journal 349.5427 (2014): n. pag. Web. 9 Jan. 2015.
Meo, S. A., and S. A. Al Asiri. "Effects of electronic cigarette smoking on human health." European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 18 (2014): 3315-3319. Web. 9 Jan. 2015.
Parascandola, Mark. "Tobacco Harm Reduction and the Evolution of Nicotine Dependence." American Journal of Public Health 101.4 (2011): 632-641. Web. 9 Jan. 2015.
Pokhrel, Pallav, Pebbles Fagan, Lisa Kehl, and Thaddeus Herzog. "Receptivity to E-cigarette Marketing, Harm Perceptions, and E-cigarette Use." American Journal of Health Behavior 39.1 (2015): 121-131. Web. 9 Jan. 2015.
Prochaska, Judith J., and Rachel A. Grana. "E-Cigarette Use among Smokers with Serious Mental Illness." PLoS ONE 9.11 (2014): 1-12. Web. 9 Jan. 2015.
Trumbo, Craig W., and Raquel Harper. "Use and Perception of Electronic Cigarettes Among College Students." Journal of American College Health 61.3 (2013): 149-155. Web. 9 Jan. 2015.
World Health Organization. Electronic nicotine delivery systems. World Health Organization, 2014. Web. 9 Jan. 2015.
World Health Organization. "WHO | Backgrounder on WHO Report on Regulation of E-cigarettes and Similar Products." WHO | World Health Organization. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Jan. 2015. <http://www.who.int/nmh/events/2014/backgrounder-e-cigarettes/en/>.
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