Good Essay About American Military Conflict From 1890 To 1914
The military of United States of America was involved in various military operations during this period that was largely marked by policies aimed at strengthening the economic power of the country. The military was involved both internally to resolve conflicts and externally to protect the interests of United States of America in various countries such as Panama, Chile, Colombia, and Cuba (Academic.evergreen.edu). Territory expansion was the main idea behind the deployment of American troops in many of the missions that they involved in.
On December 29th 1890, military was involved in disarmament checkup in Dakota at Lakota Sioux campsite (Academic.evergreen.edu). Members of the Seventh Calvary of the United States Army were deployed to carry out the operation. The military clashed with Amerindians causing death of one hundred and seventy-eight Amerindians. The Calvary suffered more than two dozen fatalities, and thirty-nine servicemen were injured. Around ninety Amerindians, were injured during the clashes and approximately one hundred and fifty were reported missing after the operation.
The State incidence is another conflict that the United States military was involved in during the period, specifically in 1891 (Trask). The incidence involved a Chilean ship named State that was being used to transport a cache of weapons to congressional rebels in Chile from the United States of America. The arms were to be used to by the rebels to overthrow the administration Balmaceda that despite the seizure of the Itata and the more than five thousand guns in it successfully accomplished (Trask). The Itata incidence lead to Baltimore crisis which eventually counted as one of the forces behind failure of re-election bid of President Benjamin Harrison (Trask).
On July six, 1892, the military was used to end a bloody confrontation between agents of Pinkerton and protestors who were opposed to the breaking of the labor organization in Homestead steel industry (Stepan-Norris and Krause). The confrontation ranks among the highest labor skirmishes in the history of United States of America. The army was called in to help restore peace to sixteen lives were lost, and more than a dozen people seriously injured. The intervention marks one of the incidences where military was used within the boundaries of United States.
On January 17, 1893, the dynasty of Kamehameha under the leadership of Queen Lili’uokalani was overthrown by rebels who had the intention of annexing Hawaii to United States of America (Adler). The insurgents mainly comprise of citizens of the United States carried out a successful coup d’état. Former Congressman James Henderson Blount conducted an investigation to determine the involvement of American diplomats and military in the coup d’état. His report concluded that the military men and diplomats had misused their mandate and were responsible for the coup. This report occasioned the resignation of the military commander in Hawaii to resign, and Minister Stephen was removed from his position as head of diplomatic relations in Hawaii.
In 1898, United States of America engaged in military war with Spain, due to the intervention of United States in the Cuban struggle independence (Clymer and Iriye). The breaking point leading to the war was sinking of the American warship sent to Cuba to protect American citizens. It was also in the interest of many American business men that Spain be flushed out of Cuba so that they can exploit the Cuban market without interference and competition from Spain. Another factor that is said to have fuelled the war was a letter printed in a New York publication alleged to be from Spanish ambassador addressed to his friend. The envoy reproached President McKinley for being weak, angering the American president.
In 1899, during the Second Samoan Civil War, the United States, Germany, and United Kingdom were tangled in an encounter for the control of the islands of Samoa in South Pacific (Thum and Thum). At the conclusion of the war, it was decided that the Americans will control eastern sectors of Samoa Islands, Germany the western expanse while United Kingdom was to govern the rest of the islands. To date, the American sector of the Samoa islands remains under the governance of American government named the territory of American Samoa while the islands formerly controlled by Germany are the independent state of Samoa.
Immediately after Americans defeated Spain and gained control of Philippine Islands, Filipino rebels sought instant state independence. American military was deployed to curb the insurgency that occurred in 1899 (Thum and Thum). The war on the rebels was declared officially over in 1902 (Thum and Thum). The American military was also involved in military conflicts in China in 1900 when they were deployed to protect the foreign lives during the Boxer rebellion (Thum and Thum). The other major deployment of American military occurred in 1912 when the army was used to prevent seizure of American owned railway at Puerto Cortes in Honduras. However, the mission was aborted after disapproval of the operation by Americans.
In a study of the conflicts, we can conclude that the military engagements by the American army in the period between 1890 and 1914 were aimed at territory expansion and economic improvement of the country (Academic.evergreen.edu). The military engagements of the Americans in the period cannot be compared to those in 21st century which are more focused on international security.
Academic.evergreen.edu, 'History of U.S. Military Interventions since 1890'. N.p., 2015. Web. 1 Mar. 2015.
Adler, Jacob. 'King Kamehameha IV's Attitude towards the United States'. The Journal of Pacific History 3.1 (1968): 107-115. Web.
Clymer, Kenton J., and Akira Iriye. 'From Nationalism to Internationalism: US Foreign Policy to 1914'. The Journal of American History 64.4 (1978): 1143. Web.
Stepan-Norris, Judith, and Paul Krause. 'The Battle For Homestead, 1880-1892: Politics, Culture, and Steel.'. Contemporary Sociology 23.2 (1994): 195. Web.
Thum, Marcella, and Gladys Thum. Exploring Military America. New York: Atheneum, 1982. Print.
Trask, David F. 'American War Plans, 1890-1939 (Review)'. The Journal of Military History 67.2 (2003): 584-585. Web.