Good Essay On Race AND Ethnicity Journal Entry Final Report
This study deals in identifying the various natures of racial discrimination and ethnicity that are prevalent in United States. The actual forms of discrimination, their concept and theories in the back ground of sociology. This study also reveals the hostility among these groups and the laws and policies governing these ethnic groups living in United States or coming here for studies where even black children or teens not spared. It also identifies the poor socioeconomic conditions of these ethnic groups and states in reducing these discriminations by more and more interactions among these communities by inter- cultural marriages and social communications. This study also tries to identify the several aspects of sociological theories that help in identifying the problems and helping in probable solutions.
Key words: race, ethnicity, racial discrimination, policing
Racism is still apart of America and exist all over the country. Several laws and policies have only change the face of racism and reduce some of the cruel effects in some of the instances, but the racial superiority of the whites still exists. Millions of these people are in such positions that give them the power to enable and create wall based on race in accessibility of employment, housing, and disparate policing. This also governs imprisonment and discrimination that have never ceased to prevail among non-white communities of America (Marger 2015: 123-126). People of color are still deprived excluded, restricted and ill-treated systemically. According to Marger (2015: 188), “personal racism” is ever present and influences the individual behavior and attitudes in a professional setting. These may include a superiority feeling in respect to another race, sometimes a fear due to different skin color, or a feeling of hatred towards a particular race. However, today’s racism is “systemic racism” (Marger 2015: 188-189). This ensure in building several advantages built in the framework of the society to give advantage to a specific racial group especially white people and difficulty to others. The public schools where children of most white people go usually are funded by property taxes, whereas the schools in poor urban areas, where the inhabitants are mainly colored people, especially African American, do not have much fund to pay the teachers or buy books for the students. If all the schools funded equally there will be good schools for all the students in spite of their ethnicity or race. In present days, racism is on a different appearance where some particular languages used against these colored people triggers racist outlook and fears among other people (Marger 2015: 130-132). There are many systemic approach in portraying colored people and their leaders as other people definitely indicates racism.
Summary of observation and experiences
Observations and experiences of these days clearly indicate racial profiling in relation to the race and ethnicity of the diverse population residing in America today. Various forms of investigations directed or stronger actions taken against these ethnic people, in relation to crime and immigration policies have induced discrimination or more racism (Marger 2015: 123-126). These approaches and ways of thinking definitely create a wall or barrier among the society of most of the majority groups of whites. Another observable thing is that the Muslims residing in this country, treated as outsiders, creates a vast social gap from other people of the country. These are more prevalent after the attack on World Trade Centre. These decedents of Middle East unreasonably targeted even today. People coming from Muslim countries have to encounter various strict processes of verification and are constantly monitored. Even in universities and colleges where several colored people in terms of African American and other Asian students are, studying lays a “cultural barricade” (Marger 2015: 188-189) in between the various ethnic groups. Several attempts on behalf of the administration and other staff implements in reducing these cultural differences are not much of progress. My observation reveals there remains a separation in between American culture or inhabitants coming from other cultural groups especially those students who are coming from Asia and Middle East. This separation may be due to language barrier, biological origins, or other geo political causes. These are other forms in terms of graduation rate of African American students and their job salary, which is far below than the whites. This discrimination also noted in education since the students of these ethnic groups usually come from poor quality schools. These put the students in a detrimental state to qualify for “sound paying” (Marger 2015: 188-189) and potential jobs. The socio economic diversity is also in an alarming stage. Other things necessary is reduction of gap among admissions of various groups in colleges and universities not only due to racial differences but also due to socio economic positions prevalent in this country from early days. In America these racial groups continues to progress in a contemporary society in spite of the presence of dominant group cultural identity and particular historical and societal backgrounds. This ethnicity and racial discrimination is deep-seated in United States that results in various ethnic differences among these groups (Marger 2015: 112-116). This racial discrimination is also prevalent among media especially against Asians since there is a general recognition among white people of society of not accepting racism as a crime. These Americans recognizes traditions and customs right from their historical age. The obvious immigrations and colonization sways the residents and human population in terms of size, growth, distribution and statics. The racial differences among various groups in this country indicate the ways they are to be treated where the color of skin forms the basis of discrimination among these people of different backgrounds. These implement the necessity of more and more social dealings in between several ethnic groups that will reduce ethnic and racial antagonism and conflicts. This also helps in reducing conflicts that are class based. My observation also shows there is prevalence of racial discrimination though the world is under an international community. These different races are living in this country for a long time but they are unable to form a society, which is free from racial inequity. This also ensures in more interactions among these diverse cultures in terms of marriage or other social bonding that will help in reducing traditions and customs among these diverse ethnic groups.
Application of key sociological concepts theories and ideas
The sociological theories and concepts help us in understanding of social behavior, and society, their cultural perspectives and their applications in different races and ethnicity. There are various theories of which;
“Symbolic Interaction theory” forms the basis of sociological theories. This theory depends on the representative meaning that people build up and depends upon in the process of societal dealings. This theory studies the society by dealing with individual meanings that people inflict on objects, actions and conduct (Marger 2015: 123-126). The conflict theory; underline the role of force and power in developing social array. This theory developed from the theories of Karl Marks; according to him, society divided in groups that try to win for social and financial resources. The social arrangement maintained by dominance, with authority in the hands of those with utmost political, monetary and societal resources. The functionalist theory; is one of the major theoretical viewpoint in sociology (Marger 2015: 230-235). This deals in understanding how social arrangement is achievable or how the social order remains comparatively constant. The Feminist theory; it is one of the key current theories that analyses the position of women and men in society and using this understanding in betterment of the lives of women. This theory gives a voice to women and highlights the contribution of women in society. The critical theory; is a social theory that relates in criticizing and altering a society as a whole, which is in contrast to the conventional theory. This theory tries to go underneath the face of social life and expose hypothesis that keep us from a factual and complete understanding of how the humanity works. The other important theories include “Labeling theory” (Marger 2015: 244-246); that deals in understanding criminal behavior of humanity. This theory assumes no action is criminal. People who are in power through formulation of laws develop these and by interpreting these laws through police, courts and reformatory organizations.
All the above study recognizes the racial discrimination prevalent in United States, among the diverse population living in the country. The various social distribution of power, education, economic and social norms are more or less responsible for this barrier among different ethnic groups. This is also prevalent among education in school level up to universities that leads to various hostile attitudes among students. People belonging to other ethnic groups other than whites’ are subjected to disadvantages in terms of education, jobs, salary and other benefits. The government has not done much in reducing these disparities among different ethnic groups and helping the society to overcome discrimination. Even people especially Asians and other Muslim people coming or living in the country are always subjected to rigorous scrutiny and monitoring. These white people, though inherent with the concept of racism from a long time are unable to from a truly fair society, which is free from all types of discriminations and ethnicity.
Marger, Martin N. 2015. Race and Ethnic Relations: American and Global Perspectives, 10th ed. Stanford, Ct: Cengage
Almaguer, Tomás.1994. Racial Faultlines: The Historical Origins of White Supremacy in California, Berkeley: University of California Press
Durkheim, Emile. 2008. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, Abridged edition, Oxford University Press, USA
Smith, Christian. 2003. The Secular Revolution: Power, Interests, and Conflict in the Secularization of American Public Life. 1st ed. University of California Press