Good Example Of As FAR As I Am Concerned, Consensus And Force Prove To Have Been Applied In Turns. Essay
Is comparative politics a science? Why is it so difficult to create a science of comparative politics?
Besides, O’Neil highlights that the scholars from different countries are unable to consent on the primary method to be applied when studying comparative politics: the researches hesitate between the traditional, behavioral or post-behavioral attitudes, comparative, quantitative or qualitative methods (6 – 11). However, the debate over the comparative politics’ methods is not the sole problem: states’ characteristics can differ in such a way that very often it is impossible to summarize findings to create a clear theory to be applied an unlimited number of times by the successors. Consequently, the scholars are likely to deal with isolated cases being in the striking contrast and leading to different conclusions.
Why do we have states? Would it be possible for people to live without them? If they disappear in the future, what would replace them?
In my point of view, from the historical events, tendencies and trends it may be drawn that Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s theory of social contract described by O’Neil is incapable of being deemed as the only one way to explain the emergence of states (10). Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed that in those times the people were divided into two parts: upper class and the lower class (another group of population). The upper class and the lower class have entered into the social contract by which the lower class waived some of their rights and liberties in exchange for the upper class’s taken obligation to arrange the system of defense and protection: army, police, means of disputes settlements, regulation of trade, enactment of rules and norms.
But, there is another explanation to the emergence of states: some scientists assume that the upper class exercised coercion and force to make the lower class consent to the establishment of the political organization in favor of the upper class.
Can authoritarian rule be legitimate? Why or why not? Should all people live under democracy? What are the possible benefits and potential dangers that result from promoting this goal?
Authoritarian societies possess their own designated set of values, rules, traditions and norms. The political and economic sides of the country are as a result affected by the particular string of values and convictions. Whereby the authoritarian rule is believed as right by the citizens and leadership of the country, for they cannot recollect the times when it was in a different way. By this explanation the authoritarian rule could be found as that able of exercising power over the people living in this country.
In the contemporary study of politics democracy is deemed to be the most acceptable and fair of the political regimes having taken place in the commonly known part of human history. Such democratic institutions as elections, bill or rights and liberties, laissez-faire principle (separation between a state and economy, free entrepreneurship, trade and commerce) proven their effectiveness throughout the world. The international community has not succeeded in creating more efficient type of political regime.
I think people from all countries should strive to build up the democratic institutions and principles to join the group of civilized nations otherwise armed conflicts and disputes will be unavoidable.
4. Why was communism unable to provide the benefits that it promised in theory? Are there flaws in this line of thinking, or did those in power misapply its principles?
Unfortunately, communism proved to be unable to provide the benefits having been promised in theory. To my mind, the essence comes from the internal economic problems suffered by the communist countries. The communists alleged that the planned economy was the solution to address the needs of the population. However, the reasonable economic theories dealing with a free market principle and stressing on the supply and demand rule are widely perceived by capitalist states.
The planned economy, whatever ineffective it may be, was just one of the challenges faced by the Soviet Union: the citizens did not want every their step to be monitored and shaped by the state’s authority – beginning from the school education and ending with a private life.
Summoning it up, it has been demonstrated that nowadays a comparative politics is impossible to be found as a fully-scale science, though it may be considered as a study of politics. The present essay has shown why states emerged in the international scene, why democracy is recommended to be implemented in the other states and why communism failed.
O'Neil, Patrick. Essentials of Comparative Politics. 3rd ed. W. W. Norton, 2009. 384. Print.