Good Example Of Combating Future Terrorism: Scope, Evaluation, And Analysis Research Paper
Since the attacks on September 11, 2001, the future complexity and complicity of terrorism has become quite ambiguous. Subsequently, the certain evolution of counter-terrorism strategies highlight the need to address terrorist attacks of any form against the United States. In a forum lecture presented at Harvard Business School, Craig Coy who oversaw the Homeland Security Group’s operational division in terms of coordination systems capabilities is concerned about critical infrastructures. Coy (2008) stated that a globalized terror threat can easily occur around oil/energy, because of instability in oil-producing nations, “we can protect the global chain of commerce,” since it represents the lifeline of our (U.S.) economy – which puts America at risk (“Strategic Responses to Global Terrorism”). The video of this think-tank discussion from the highest level of experts is interesting, in that it may be the last publicly viewed meetings of its types in recorded history, therefore worthwhile watching. The focus of this research investigation addresses the following points: (a) Summarization of basic strategies possibly utilized to prevent future terrorist attacks, (b) Assessment of socio-economic strategies which can be implemented to eliminate terrorist-group motivation, (c) Evaluation of future legislative or Constitutional amendments to detour terrorist attacks, and (d) Analyze if additional powers are required by the Federal government to act to protect the country, and evaluate if an increase of such powers synthesizes a tradeoff in terms of the potential erosion of civil liberties. The conclusion reviews the future of terrorism, considering whether the frequency of attacks will increase or decrease.
The historical and cultural development of this problem fundamentally must connect to the definitions of, and distinguishing domestic terrorism and international terrorism. Today in 2015, the line demonstrates an extremely fuzzy gray area. Nevertheless, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has formulated definitions to U.S. Code. According to the FBI (2015) domestic terrorism signifies activities covering areas of dangerous acts to “human life” which violates federal law, intimidations to “coerce a civilian population,” and influence of government policy or an affectation to implement “mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping” (“Definitions of Terrorism”). The extent of the description is stunning. Additionally, the defined scope of international terrorism primarily includes the same as above conducted in locales outside of U.S. jurisdiction. To briefly summarize some strategies targeted at mitigation of future terrorist attacks the roster comprises: economic roadblocks, intelligence solutions, monitoring Muslim business or charity organizations, increased cargo inspections, policy renovations, and the possibility of forming unified socio-religious organizations concerned with homogenizing ideas of caring for humankind.
Given the complexity of the situation it is difficult to unequivocally decide whether international or domestic terrorism is the greatest threat to the U.S. Obviously, we have seen via common knowledge that certain United States citizen-sympathizers have flown to Pakistan – or of late, to participate in ISIS events – which deems that the threat is basically global, but basically having pockets of domestic cells from within. How do you fight that? Strategies to devise socio-economic strategies to eliminate terrorist-group motivation may prove useful since purely military action is not the only viable response anymore. Consider the situation within the episode of the 9/11 affair in which deadly packets of bio warfare-induced anthrax was mailed. One key observation perceives that identification of the persons involved, whether domestic or international terrorist, poses quite the challenge. In terms of taking a retroactive historical, cultural gaze scholar Ann Larabee poses an analysis of the black liberation movement groups in 1970s America.
In focusing on this particular time period, within the rubric of black dignity arising to demands of equal rights of in gaining access to public facilities and accommodations, a backlash of Ku Klux Klan activities involved bombings and myriad terrorist-like tactics of intimidation and sabotage. Larabee (2011) notes the erasure of this “astonishing moment of amnesia” in the United States as a blocking out of obvious white-supremacist violence by certain militias so involved (p. 106). The point demonstrates that identification of terrorists in the first place, must occur prior to implementation of any effective strategies of a socio-economic nature. While Larabee warns and educates against conveniently, or biased selective identification of ‘terrorists’ Rosenau (2013) accuses an outgrowth of the Black Panther Party organization in the 1960s-1970s Civil Rights movement, the ‘Black Liberation Army’ (BLA) as being a terrorist group. Rosenau (2013) wants the reader to be convinced that the BLA should rightly be understood as “part of a wider landscape of homegrown political violence” (p. 176). Yet, an exploration of logic that drives the question stems from the inquiry of whether organizations such as Al Qaeda, or ISIS, should be compared to either of these opposing groups in the 1970s U.S. See the problem?
When you fast-forward to today’s modern society in considering how to combat future terrorism, domestic or international, the concept imposes even more obscurity. In other words, for example, how can one begin to evaluate if future legislation or Constitutional amendments could effectively be utilized to hinder possible terrorist attacks – given that current laws fail to be honored and enforced? In the Buffalo Law Journal Fink (2010) writes, in a discussion about border crossings and customs that when one international director of the Erie County Industrial Development Agency, Maryann Stein, attempted to routinely cross into Canada from the United States, she was detained due to lack of having “a letter from her employer explaining why she wanted to enter Canada and where she was going” (p. 1). While Fink focuses upon the story of de facto regulations in controlling the U.S.-Canadian border, meanwhile many American citizens are in a tizzy over the porous southern U.S.-Mexico borders. Some believe terrorists from Muslim nations operate illegal entry, under the guise of ‘Latino-infiltration’ for felonious purposes designed to plan terrorist attacks inside United States jurisdiction. To further complicate the situation, illegal and undocumented Spanish-speaking immigrants from south of the border have been granted the legal rights to obtaining driver’s licenses. The level of complexity differential dramatizes the intricacies of how combating future terrorism should reasonably be planned, and handled.
Adverse financial and business implications go hand-in-hand with terrorist activities, particular in large-scale, well planned movements of orchestrated violence. Cummings also mentioned that hospitality sectors were a huge concern, despite the fact that many operations have been disrupted. In a journal article published by Crime, Law & Social Change Shehu (2012) argues that financial access improves economic growth and conditions, noting that financial protocols and “measures should be tailored” to curtail “risks of money laundering and financing of terrorism” (p. 306.). Homeland Security also recognizes the importance of integrating the Department of the Treasury in watch-dog roles of banking and financial activities. It has setup coordinated governmental powers to help protect the country against future terrorist attacks by involving a cross-sector all-agencies participation in a collective of roles and responsibilities working together with departments such as: The Department of State, The Department of Justice, The Department of Commerce, The Office of Science and Technology, The Department of Transportation, and others. In this way, further analysis and evaluation of coordination practices can “facilitate sharing of information,” prioritizing, identifying cyber-threats, and guarding “protection of critical infrastructure and key resources” (“Homeland Security Presidential Directive”). These things aside, bioterrorism exhibits an entirely different story, and kind of threat.
In conclusion, Cummings noted that the physical movements of oil were largely under watchful Muslim control from the three ports of: the Suez Canal, Strait of Hormuz, and the Strait of Malacca. But the most disturbing factor in the expert’s presentation to a distinguished panel of officials and scholars, is a single remark pertaining to the nation of China. Cummings stated that “China is killing us,” with regard to its state-sanctioned sponsorship to steal secrets by utilization of its national assets’ muscle (“Strategic Responses to Global Terrorism”). In other words, the indication inferred a different kind of dangerous ‘terror’ apart from the physical violence of destruction. Obviously, the future of terrorism is showing a different face, flaunting a variety of less detectable posed masks intent on the furtherance of deception. Thereby, the future face of terrorism will probably be more sophisticated than ever, emerging in surprising ways. The frequency of traditionally violent terror will most likely continue and increase over time, but the style of organization may become more difficult to detect unless the intelligence stays ahead of the game. Combating future terrorism holds a multiplicity of avenues to be faced down the road.
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The FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2015). Definitions of terrorism in the U.S. Code
[Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism/terrorism-definition
Fink, J. (2010, November 25). Border crossing a challenge post-9/11. (cover story). Buffalo Law
Harvard Business School. (2008, October 13). Strategic responses to global terrorism.
[Videotaped roundtable conference led by Professor Jan W. Rivkin]. [Data file].
Retrieved from http://www.hbs.edu/centennial/businesssummit/business-society/strategic-responses-to-global-terrorism.html
Larabee, A.I. (2011). Why historians should exercise caution when using the word ‘terrorism.’.
Rosenau, W. (2013). “Our backs are against the Wall”: The Black Liberation Army and domestic
terrorism in the 1970s America. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 36(2), 176-192.
Shehu, A. (2012). Promoting financial inclusion for effective ant-money laundering and
counter financing of terrorism (AML/CFT). Crime, Law & Social Change, 57(3),
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